Gentner, D.


The structure-mapping engine: Algorithm and examples

Classics

This paper describes the structure-mapping engine (SME), a program for studying analogical processing. Its flexibility enhances cognitive simulation studies by simplifying experimentation. Furthermore, SME is very efficient, making it a useful component in machine learning systems as well. Next we demonstrate some examples of its operation taken from our cognitive simulation studies and work in machine learning.


Structure mapping: A theoretical framework for analogy

Classics

A theory of analogy must describe how the meaning of an analogy is derived from the meanings of its parts. In the structure-mapping theory, the interpretation rules are characterized as implicit rules for mapping knowledge about a base domain into a target domain. Two important features of the theory are (a) the rules depend only on syntactic properties of the knowledge representation, and not on the specific content of the domains; and (b) the theoretical framework allows analogies to be distinguished cleanly from literal similarity statements, applications of abstractions, and other kinds of comparisons. Two mapping principles are described: (a) Relations between objects, rather than attributes of objects, are mapped from base to target; and (b) The particular relations mapped are determined by systematicity, as defined by the existence of higher-order relations. Cognitive Science, 7 (2), 155-€“170.