If you are looking for an answer to the question What is Artificial Intelligence? and you only have a minute, then here's the definition the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence offers on its home page: "the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines."
However, if you are fortunate enough to have more than a minute, then please get ready to embark upon an exciting journey exploring AI (but beware, it could last a lifetime) …
Machine learning methods especially deep neural networks have achieved great success but many of them often rely on a number of labeled samples for training. In real-world applications, we often need to address sample shortage due to e.g., dynamic contexts with emerging prediction targets and costly sample annotation. Therefore, low-resource learning, which aims to learn robust prediction models with no enough resources (especially training samples), is now being widely investigated. Among all the low-resource learning studies, many prefer to utilize some auxiliary information in the form of Knowledge Graph (KG), which is becoming more and more popular for knowledge representation, to reduce the reliance on labeled samples. In this survey, we very comprehensively reviewed over $90$ papers about KG-aware research for two major low-resource learning settings -- zero-shot learning (ZSL) where new classes for prediction have never appeared in training, and few-shot learning (FSL) where new classes for prediction have only a small number of labeled samples that are available. We first introduced the KGs used in ZSL and FSL studies as well as the existing and potential KG construction solutions, and then systematically categorized and summarized KG-aware ZSL and FSL methods, dividing them into different paradigms such as the mapping-based, the data augmentation, the propagation-based and the optimization-based. We next presented different applications, including not only KG augmented tasks in Computer Vision and Natural Language Processing (e.g., image classification, text classification and knowledge extraction), but also tasks for KG curation (e.g., inductive KG completion), and some typical evaluation resources for each task. We eventually discussed some challenges and future directions on aspects such as new learning and reasoning paradigms, and the construction of high quality KGs.
Incorporating external knowledge to Visual Question Answering (VQA) has become a vital practical need. Existing methods mostly adopt pipeline approaches with different components for knowledge matching and extraction, feature learning, etc.However, such pipeline approaches suffer when some component does not perform well, which leads to error propagation and poor overall performance. Furthermore, the majority of existing approaches ignore the answer bias issue -- many answers may have never appeared during training (i.e., unseen answers) in real-word application. To bridge these gaps, in this paper, we propose a Zero-shot VQA algorithm using knowledge graphs and a mask-based learning mechanism for better incorporating external knowledge, and present new answer-based Zero-shot VQA splits for the F-VQA dataset. Experiments show that our method can achieve state-of-the-art performance in Zero-shot VQA with unseen answers, meanwhile dramatically augment existing end-to-end models on the normal F-VQA task.
External knowledge (a.k.a side information) plays a critical role in zero-shot learning (ZSL) which aims to predict with unseen classes that have never appeared in training data. Several kinds of external knowledge such as text and attribute have been widely investigated, but they alone are limited with incomplete semantics. Therefore, some very recent studies propose to use Knowledge Graph (KG) due to its high expressivity and compatibility for representing kinds of knowledge. However, the ZSL community is still short of standard benchmarks for studying and comparing different KG-based ZSL methods. In this paper, we proposed 5 resources for KG-based research in zero-shot image classification (ZS-IMGC) and zero-shot KG completion (ZS-KGC). For each resource, we contributed a benchmark and its KG with semantics ranging from text to attributes, from relational knowledge to logical expressions. We have clearly presented how the resources are constructed, their statistics and formats, and how they can be utilized with cases in evaluating ZSL methods' performance and explanations. Our resources are available at https://github.com/China-UK-ZSL/Resources_for_KZSL.
Zero-shot learning (ZSL) which aims at predicting classes that have never appeared during the training using external knowledge (a.k.a. side information) has been widely investigated. In this paper we present a literature review towards ZSL in the perspective of external knowledge, where we categorize the external knowledge, review their methods and compare different external knowledge. With the literature review, we further discuss and outlook the role of symbolic knowledge in addressing ZSL and other machine learning sample shortage issues.
Zero-shot Learning (ZSL), which aims to predict for those classes that have never appeared in the training data, has arisen hot research interests. The key of implementing ZSL is to leverage the prior knowledge of classes which builds the semantic relationship between classes and enables the transfer of the learned models (e.g., features) from training classes (i.e., seen classes) to unseen classes. However, the priors adopted by the existing methods are relatively limited with incomplete semantics. In this paper, we explore richer and more competitive prior knowledge to model the inter-class relationship for ZSL via ontology-based knowledge representation and semantic embedding. Meanwhile, to address the data imbalance between seen classes and unseen classes, we developed a generative ZSL framework with Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs). Our main findings include: (i) an ontology-enhanced ZSL framework that can be applied to different domains, such as image classification (IMGC) and knowledge graph completion (KGC); (ii) a comprehensive evaluation with multiple zero-shot datasets from different domains, where our method often achieves better performance than the state-of-the-art models. In particular, on four representative ZSL baselines of IMGC, the ontology-based class semantics outperform the previous priors e.g., the word embeddings of classes by an average of 12.4 accuracy points in the standard ZSL across two example datasets (see Figure 4).
Zero-shot learning (ZSL) is a popular research problem that aims at predicting for those classes that have never appeared in the training stage by utilizing the inter-class relationship with some side information. In this study, we propose to model the compositional and expressive semantics of class labels by an OWL (Web Ontology Language) ontology, and further develop a new ZSL framework with ontology embedding. The effectiveness has been verified by some primary experiments on animal image classification and visual question answering.
Transfer learning which aims at utilizing knowledge learned from one problem (source domain) to solve another different but related problem (target domain) has attracted wide research attentions. However, the current transfer learning methods are mostly uninterpretable, especially to people without ML expertise. In this extended abstract, we brief introduce two knowledge graph (KG) based frameworks towards human understandable transfer learning explanation. The first one explains the transferability of features learned by Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) from one domain to another through pre-training and fine-tuning, while the second justifies the model of a target domain predicted by models from multiple source domains in zero-shot learning (ZSL). Both methods utilize KG and its reasoning capability to provide rich and human understandable explanations to the transfer procedure.