Feigenbaum, Edward A.

Happy Silver Anniversary, AI!

AI Magazine

Artificial intelligence (AI), on the twenty-fifth anniversary of its naming, is a "kid, finally grown up." In this letter to his field, Feigenbaum recounts AI's stumbles and successes, its growing pains and maturation, to a place of preeminence among the sciences; standing with molecular biology, particle physics, and cosmology as owners of the best questions of science.

Knowledge-Based Systems Research and Applications in Japan, 1992

AI Magazine

Representatives of universities and businesses were chosen by the Japan Technology Evaluation Center to investigate the state of the technology in Japan relative to the United States. The panel's report focused on applications, tools, and research and development in universities and industry and on major national projects.

In Memoriam: Arthur Samuel: Pioneer in Machine Learning

AI Magazine

Arthur Samuel (1901-1990) was a pioneer of artificial intelligence research. From 1949 through the late 1960s, he did the best work in making computers learn from their expe-rience. His vehicle for this work was the game of checkers.

Signal-to-Symbol Transformation: HASP/SIAP Case Study

AI Magazine

Artificial intelligence is that part of computer science that concerns itself with the concepts and methods of symbolic inference and symbolic representation of knowledge. But within the last fifteen years, it has concerned itself also with signals -- with the interpretation or understanding of signal data. AI researchers have discussed "signal-to symbol transformations," and their programs have shown how appropriate use of symbolic manipulations can be of great use in making signal processing more effective and efficient. Indeed, the programs for signal understanding have been fruitful, powerful, and among the most widely recognized of AI's achievements.

AAAI President's Message

AI Magazine

Twenty five years is not long in the history of a science--long enough to achieve, short enough to remember. Your esteemed founders are still around -- vigorous, not so young anymore. Out of the cybernetics you came, and information-theoretic psychology. You were born in the early days of modern computing, on hot, bulky hardware with names few now remember, like JOHNNIAC; in strange and wonderful software called list structures, with stacks you could "push down" and "pop-up," bearing arcane acronyms like IPL and FLPL.

Computers and Thought


This collection includes twenty classic papers by such pioneers as A. M. Turing and Marvin Minsky who were behind the pivotal advances in artificially simulating human thought processes with computers.All Parts are available as downloadable pdf files; most individual chapters are also available separately. Table of ContentsPreface and Acknowledgments Part 1: ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCEIntroduction Section 1. Can a Machine Think?COMPUTING MACHINERY AND INTELLIGENCE A. M. Turing Section 2. Machines That Play GamesCHESS-PLAYING PROGRAMS AND THE PROBLEM OF COMPLEXITY Allen Newell, J.C. Shaw and H.A. SimonSOME STUDIES IN MACHINE LEARNING USING THE GAME OF CHECKERS A. L. Samuel Section 3. Machines That Prove Mathematical TheoremsEMPIRICAL EXPLORATIONS WITH THE LOGIC THEORY MACHINE: A CASE STUDY IN HEURISTICS Allen Newell J.C. Shaw and H.A. SimonREALIZATION OF A GEOMETRY-THEOREM PROVING MACHINE H. GelernterEMPIRICAL EXPLORATIONS OF THE GEOMETRY-THEOREM PROVING MACHINE H. Gelernter, J.R. Hansen, and D. W. Loveland Section 4. Two Important ApplicationsSUMMARY OF A HEURISTIC LINE BALANCING PROCEDURE Fred M. TongeA HEURISTIC PROGRAM THAT SOLVES SYMBOLIC INTEGRATION PROBLEMS IN FRESHMAN CALCULUS James R. Slagle Section 5. Question-answering MachinesBASEBALL: AN AUTOMATIC QUESTION ANSWERER Green, Bert F. Jr., Alice K. Wolf, Carol Chomsky, and Kenneth LaugheryINFERENTIAL MEMORY AS THE BASIS OF MACHINES WHICH UNDERSTAND NATURAL LANGUAGE Robert K. Lindsay Section 6. Pattern RecognitionPATTERN RECOGNITION BY MACHINE Oliver G. Selfridge and Ulric NeisserA PATTERN-RECOGNITION PROGRAM THAT GENERATES, EVALUATES, AND ADJUSTS ITS OWN OPERATORS Leonard Uhr and Charles Vossler Part 2: SIMULATION OF COGNITIVE PROCESSESIntroduction Section 1. Problem-solvingGPS, A PROGRAM THAT SIMULATES HUMAN THOUGHT Allen Newell and H.A. Simon Section 2. Verbal Learning and Concept FormationTHE SIMULATION OF VERBAL LEARNING BEHAVIOR Edward A. FeigenbaumPROGRAMMING A MODEL OF HUMAN CONCEPT FORMULATION Earl B. Hunt and Carl I. Hovland Section 3. Decision-making under UncertaintySIMULATION OF BEHAVIOR IN THE BINARY CHOICE EXPERIMENT Julian FeldmanA MODEL OF THE TRUST INVESTMENT PROCESS Geoffrey P. E. Clarkson Section 4. Social BehaviorA COMPUTER MODEL OF ELEMENTARY SOCIAL BEHAVIOR John T. Gullahorn and Jeanne E. Gullahorn PART 3: SURVEY OF APPROACHES AND ATTITUDESIntroductionATTITUDES TOWARD INTELLIGENT MACHINES Paul ArmerSTEPS TOWARD ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE Marvin Minsky Part 4: BIBLIOGRAPHY A SELECTED DESCRIPTOR-INDEXED BIBLIOGRAPHY TO THE LITERATURE ON ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCEMarvin Minsky INDEX