If you are looking for an answer to the question What is Artificial Intelligence? and you only have a minute, then here's the definition the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence offers on its home page: "the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines."
However, if you are fortunate enough to have more than a minute, then please get ready to embark upon an exciting journey exploring AI (but beware, it could last a lifetime) …
A major challenge in scaling object detection is the difficulty of obtaining labeled images for large numbers of categories. Recently, deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have emerged as clear winners on object classification benchmarks, in part due to training with 1.2M labeled classification images. Unfortunately, only a small fraction of those labels are available for the detection task. It is much cheaper and easier to collect large quantities of image-level labels from search engines than it is to collect detection data and label it with precise bounding boxes. In this paper, we propose Large Scale Detection through Adaptation (LSDA), an algorithm which learns the difference between the two tasks and transfers this knowledge to classifiers for categories without bounding box annotated data, turning them into detectors.
Training generative adversarial networks requires balancing of delicate adversarial dynamics. Even with careful tuning, training may diverge or end up in a bad equilibrium with dropped modes. In this work, we introduce a new form of latent optimisation inspired by the CS-GAN and show that it improves adversarial dynamics by enhancing interactions between the discriminator and the generator. We develop supporting theoretical analysis from the perspectives of differentiable games and stochastic approximation. Our experiments demonstrate that latent optimisation can significantly improve GAN training, obtaining state-of-the-art performance for the ImageNet ( 128 128) dataset. Our model achieves an Inception Score (IS) of 148 and an Fr echet Inception Distance (FID) of 3.4, an improvement of 17% and 32% in IS and FID respectively, compared with the baseline BigGAN-deep model with the same architecture and number of parameters. Generative Adversarial Nets (GANs) are implicit generative models that can be trained to match a given data distribution. GANs were originally developed by Goodfellow et al. (2014) for image data. As the field of generative modelling has advanced, GANs remain at the frontier, generating high-fidelity images at large scale (Brock et al., 2018).
Generative models of natural images have progressed towards high fidelity samples by the strong leveraging of scale. We attempt to carry this success to the field of video modeling by showing that large Generative Adversarial Networks trained on the complex Kinetics-600 dataset are able to produce video samples of substantially higher complexity than previous work. Our proposed model, Dual Video Discriminator GAN (DVD-GAN), scales to longer and higher resolution videos by leveraging a computationally efficient decomposition of its discriminator. We evaluate on the related tasks of video synthesis and video prediction, and achieve new state of the art Fréchet Inception Distance on prediction for Kinetics-600, as well as state of the art Inception Score for synthesis on the UCF-101 dataset, alongside establishing a strong baseline for synthesis on Kinetics-600.
Donahue, Jeff, Simonyan, Karen
Adversarially trained generative models (GANs) have recently achieved compelling image synthesis results. But despite early successes in using GANs for unsupervised representation learning, they have since been superseded by approaches based on self-supervision. In this work we show that progress in image generation quality translates to substantially improved representation learning performance. Our approach, BigBiGAN, builds upon the state-of-the-art BigGAN model, extending it to representation learning by adding an encoder and modifying the discriminator. We extensively evaluate the representation learning and generation capabilities of these BigBiGAN models, demonstrating that these generation-based models achieve the state of the art in unsupervised representation learning on ImageNet, as well as in unconditional image generation.
Despite recent progress in generative image modeling, successfully generating high-resolution, diverse samples from complex datasets such as ImageNet remains an elusive goal. To this end, we train Generative Adversarial Networks at the largest scale yet attempted, and study the instabilities specific to such scale. We find that applying orthogonal regularization to the generator renders it amenable to a simple "truncation trick," allowing fine control over the tradeoff between sample fidelity and variety by truncating the latent space. Our modifications lead to models which set the new state of the art in class-conditional image synthesis. When trained on ImageNet at 128 128 resolution, our models (BigGANs) achieve an Inception Score (IS) of 166.3 and Fréchet Inception Distance (FID) of 9.6, improving over the previous best IS of 52.52 and FID of 18.65. Figure 1: Class-conditional samples generated by our model. The state of generative image modeling has advanced dramatically in recent years, with Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs, Goodfellow et al. (2014)) at the forefront of efforts to generate highfidelity, diverse images with models learned directly from data. GAN training is dynamic, and sensitive to nearly every aspect of its setup (from optimization parameters to model architecture), but a torrent of research has yielded empirical and theoretical insights enabling stable training in a variety of settings. Despite this progress, the current state of the art in conditional ImageNet modeling (Zhang et al., 2018) achieves an Inception Score (Salimans et al., 2016) of 52.5, compared to 233 for real data. In this work, we set out to close the gap in fidelity and variety between images generated by GANs and real-world images from the ImageNet dataset. We make the following three contributions towards this goal: - We demonstrate that GANs benefit dramatically from scaling, and train models with two to four times as many parameters and eight times the batch size compared to prior art.
The ability of the Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) framework to learn generative models mapping from simple latent distributions to arbitrarily complex data distributions has been demonstrated empirically, with compelling results showing that the latent space of such generators captures semantic variation in the data distribution. Intuitively, models trained to predict these semantic latent representations given data may serve as useful feature representations for auxiliary problems where semantics are relevant. However, in their existing form, GANs have no means of learning the inverse mapping -- projecting data back into the latent space. We propose Bidirectional Generative Adversarial Networks (BiGANs) as a means of learning this inverse mapping, and demonstrate that the resulting learned feature representation is useful for auxiliary supervised discrimination tasks, competitive with contemporary approaches to unsupervised and self-supervised feature learning.
A major challenge in scaling object detection is the difficulty of obtaining labeled images for large numbers of categories. Recently, deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have emerged as clear winners on object classification benchmarks, in part due to training with 1.2M+ labeled classification images. Unfortunately, only a small fraction of those labels are available for the detection task. It is much cheaper and easier to collect large quantities of image-level labels from search engines than it is to collect detection data and label it with precise bounding boxes. In this paper, we propose Large Scale Detection through Adaptation (LSDA), an algorithm which learns the difference between the two tasks and transfers this knowledge to classifiers for categories without bounding box annotated data, turning them into detectors. Our method has the potential to enable detection for the tens of thousands of categories that lack bounding box annotations, yet have plenty of classification data. Evaluation on the ImageNet LSVRC-2013 detection challenge demonstrates the efficacy of our approach. This algorithm enables us to produce a >7.6K detector by using available classification data from leaf nodes in the ImageNet tree. We additionally demonstrate how to modify our architecture to produce a fast detector (running at 2fps for the 7.6K detector). Models and software are available at
Images seen during test time are often not from the same distribution as images used for learning. This problem, known as domain shift, occurs when training classifiers from object-centric internet image databases and trying to apply them directly to scene understanding tasks. The consequence is often severe performance degradation and is one of the major barriers for the application of classifiers in real-world systems. In this paper, we show how to learn transform-based domain adaptation classifiers in a scalable manner. The key idea is to exploit an implicit rank constraint, originated from a max-margin domain adaptation formulation, to make optimization tractable. Experiments show that the transformation between domains can be very efficiently learned from data and easily applied to new categories. This begins to bridge the gap between large-scale internet image collections and object images captured in everyday life environments.