Collins, John


Multi-Level Anomaly Detection on Time-Varying Graph Data

arXiv.org Machine Learning

This work presents a novel modeling and analysis framework for graph sequences which addresses the challenge of detecting and contextualizing anomalies in labelled, streaming graph data. We introduce a generalization of the BTER model of Seshadhri et al. by adding flexibility to community structure, and use this model to perform multi-scale graph anomaly detection. Specifically, probability models describing coarse subgraphs are built by aggregating probabilities at finer levels, and these closely related hierarchical models simultaneously detect deviations from expectation. This technique provides insight into a graph's structure and internal context that may shed light on a detected event. Additionally, this multi-scale analysis facilitates intuitive visualizations by allowing users to narrow focus from an anomalous graph to particular subgraphs or nodes causing the anomaly. For evaluation, two hierarchical anomaly detectors are tested against a baseline Gaussian method on a series of sampled graphs. We demonstrate that our graph statistics-based approach outperforms both a distribution-based detector and the baseline in a labeled setting with community structure, and it accurately detects anomalies in synthetic and real-world datasets at the node, subgraph, and graph levels. To illustrate the accessibility of information made possible via this technique, the anomaly detector and an associated interactive visualization tool are tested on NCAA football data, where teams and conferences that moved within the league are identified with perfect recall, and precision greater than 0.786.


Effective Management of Electric Vehicle Storage Using Smart Charging

AAAI Conferences

The growing Electric Vehicles' (EVs) popularity among commuters creates new challenges for the smart grid. The most important of them is the uncoordinated EV charging that substantially increases the energy demand peaks, putting the smart grid under constant strain. In order to cope with these peaks the grid needs extra infrastructure, a costly solution. We propose an Adaptive Management of EV Storage (AMEVS) algorithm, implemented through a learning agent that acts on behalf of individual EV owners and schedules EV charging over a weekly horizon. It accounts for individual preferences so that mobility service is not violated but also individual benefit is maximized. We observe that it reshapes the energy demand making it less volatile so that fewer resources are needed to cover peaks. It assumes Vehicle-to-Grid discharging when the customer has excess capacity. Our agent uses Reinforcement Learning trained on real world data to learn individual household consumption behavior and to schedule EV charging. Unlike previous work, AMEVS is a fully distributed approach. We show that AMEVS achieves significant reshaping of the energy demand curve and peak reduction, which is correlated with customer preferences regarding perceived utility of energy availability. Additionally, we show that the average and peak energy prices are reduced as a result of smarter energy use.


Autonomous Agents in Future Energy Markets: The 2012 Power Trading Agent Competition

AAAI Conferences

Sustainable energy systems of the future will need more than efficient, clean, and low-cost energy sources. They will also need efficient price signals that motivate sustainable energy consumption behaviors and a tight real-time alignment of energy demand with supply from renewable and traditional sources. The Power Trading Agent Competition (Power TAC) is a rich, competitive, open-source simulation platform for future retail power markets built on real-world data and state-of-the-art customer models. Its purpose is to help researchers understand the dynamics of customer and retailer decision-making as well as the robustness of proposed market designs. Power TAC invites researchers to develop autonomous electricity broker agents and to pit them against best-in-class strategies in global competitions, the first of which will be held at AAAI 2013. Power TAC competitions provide compelling, actionable information for policy makers and industry leaders. We describe the competition scenario, demonstrate the realism of the Power TAC platform, and analyze key characteristics of successful brokers in one of our 2012 pilot competitions between seven research groups from five different countries.


Smart Charging of Electric Vehicles using Reinforcement Learning

AAAI Conferences

The introduction of Electric Vehicles (EVs) in the existing Energy Grid raises many issues regarding Grid stability and charging behavior. Uncontrolled charging on the customer’s side may increase the already high peaks in the energy demand that lead to respective increase in the energy prices.We propose a novel smart charging algorithm that maximizes individual welfare and reduces the individual energy expenses. We use Reinforcement Learning trained on real world data to learn the individual household consumption behavior and propose a charging algorithm with respect to individual welfare maximization objective. Furthermore, we use statistical customer models to simulate the EV customer behavior. We show that the individual customers, represented by intelligent agents, using the proposed charging algorithm reduce their energy expenses. Additionally, we show that the average energy prices, on an aggregated level, are reduced as a result of smarter use of the energy available. Finally we prove that the presented algorithm achieves significant peak reduction and reshaping of the energy demand curve.



Pushing the Limits of Rational Agents: The Trading Agent Competition for Supply Chain Management

AI Magazine

Over the years, competitions have been important catalysts for progress in Artificial Intelligence. We describe one such competition, the Trading Agent Competition for Supply Chain Management (TAC SCM). We discuss its significance in the context of today’s global market economy as well as AI research, the ways in which it breaks away from limiting assumptions made in prior work, and some of the advances it has engendered over the past six years. TAC SCM requires autonomous supply chain entities, modeled as agents, to coordinate their internal operations while concurrently trading in multiple dynamic and highly competitive markets. Since its introduction in 2003, the competition has attracted over 150 entries and brought together researchers from AI and beyond in the form of 75 competing teams from 25 different countries.


AAAI-07 Workshop Reports

AI Magazine

The AAAI-07 workshop program was held Sunday and Monday, July 22-23, in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The program included the following thirteen workshops: (1) Acquiring Planning Knowledge via Demonstration; (2) Configuration; (3) Evaluating Architectures for Intelligence; (4) Evaluation Methods for Machine Learning; (5) Explanation-Aware Computing; (6) Human Implications of Human-Robot Interaction; (7) Intelligent Techniques for Web Personalization; (8) Plan, Activity, and Intent Recognition; (9) Preference Handling for Artificial Intelligence; (10) Semantic e-Science; (11) Spatial and Temporal Reasoning; (12) Trading Agent Design and Analysis; and (13) Information Integration on the Web.


AAAI-07 Workshop Reports

AI Magazine

The AAAI-07 workshop program was held Sunday and Monday, July 22-23, in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The program included the following thirteen workshops: (1) Acquiring Planning Knowledge via Demonstration; (2) Configuration; (3) Evaluating Architectures for Intelligence; (4) Evaluation Methods for Machine Learning; (5) Explanation-Aware Computing; (6) Human Implications of Human-Robot Interaction; (7) Intelligent Techniques for Web Personalization; (8) Plan, Activity, and Intent Recognition; (9) Preference Handling for Artificial Intelligence; (10) Semantic e-Science; (11) Spatial and Temporal Reasoning; (12) Trading Agent Design and Analysis; and (13) Information Integration on the Web.