Clancey, William J.

Human-Centered Cognitive Orthoses: Artificial Intelligence for, Rather than Instead of, the People

AI Magazine

This issue of AI Magazine includes six articles on cognitive orthoses, which we broadly conceive as technological approaches that amplify or enhance individual or team cognition across a wide range of goals and activities. The articles are grouped by how they relate to orthoses enhanced socio-technical team intelligence at three different cognitive levels--sensorimotor physical, professional learning, and networked knowledge.

Knowledge-Based Environments for Teaching and Learning

AI Magazine

The Spring Symposium on Knowledge-based Environments for Teaching and Learning focused on the use of technology to facilitate learning, training, teaching, counseling, coaxing and coaching.

From Guidon to Neomycin and Heracles in Twenty Short Lessons

AI Magazine

I review the research leading from the GUIDON rule-based tutoring system, including the reconfiguration of MYCIN into NEOMYCIN and NEOMYCIN's generalization in the heuristic classification shell, HERACLES. The presentation is organized chronologically around pictures and dialogues that represent conceptual turning points and crystallize the basic ideas. My purpose is to collect the important results in one place, so they can be easily grasped. In the conclusion, I make some observations about our research methodology.

Readings in Medical Artificial Intelligence: The First Decade


A survey of early work exploring how AI can be used in medicine, with somewhat more technical expositions than in the complementary volume Artificial Intelligence in Medicine."Each chapter is preceded by a brief introduction that outlines our view of its contribution to the field, the reason it was selected for inclusion in this volume, an overview of its content, and a discussion of how the work evolved after the article appeared and how it relates to other chapters in the book." ContentsPrefaceContributorsChapter 1—Introduction: Medical Artificial Intelligence ProgramsWilliam J. Clancey and Edward H. ShortliffeChapter 2—Computer-Assisted Clinical Decision MakingG. Anthony GorryChapter 3—Knowledge Engineering for Medical Decision Making: A Review of Computer-Based Decision AidsEdward H. Shortliffe, Bruce G. Buchanan, and Edward A. FeigenbaumChapter 4—Artificial Intelligence Methods and Systems for Medical ConsultationCasimir A. KulikowskiChapter 5—Production Rules as a Representation for a Knowledgte Based Consultation ProgramRandall Davis, Bruce G. Buchanan, and Edward H. ShortliffeChapter 6—Towards the Simulation of Clinical Cognition: Taking a Present Illness by Computer ProgramStephen G. Pauker, G. Anthony Gorry, Jerome P. Kassirer, and William B. SchwartzChapter 7—A Model-Based Method for Computer-Aided Medical Decision MakingSholom M. Weiss, Casimir A. Kulikowski, Saul Amarel, and Aran SafirChapter 8—INTERNIST-1, An Experimental Computer-Based Diagnostic Consultant for General Internal MedicineRandolph A. Miller, Harry E. Pople, Jr., and Jack D. MyersChapter 9—Categorical and Probabilistic Reasoning in Medical DiagnosisPeter Szolovits and Stephen G. PaukerChapter 10—Computer-Based Medical Decision Making: From MYCIN to VMLawrence M. Fagan, Edward H. Shortliffe, and Bruce G. BuchananChapter 11—Intelligent Computer-Aided Instruction for Medical DiagnosisWilliam J. Clancey, Edward H. Shortliffe, and Bruce G. BuchananChapter 12—LCS: The Role and Development of Medical Knowledge in Diagnostic ExpertisePaul J. Feltovich, Paul E. Johnson, James H. Moller, and David B. SwansonChapter 13—Knowledge Organization and Distribution for Medical DiagnosisFernando Gomez and B. ChandrasekaranChapter 14—Causal Understanding of Patient Illness in Medical DiagnosisRamesh S. Patil, Peter Szolovits, and William B. SchwartzChapter 15—NEOMYCIN: Reconfiguring a Rule-Based Expert System for Application to TeachingWilliam J. Clancey and Reed LetsingerChapter 16—Explaining and Justifying Expert Consulting ProgramsWilliam R. SwartoutChapter 17—Discovery, Confirmation, and Incorporation of Causal Relationships from a Large Time-Oriented Clinical Data Base: The RX ProjectRobert L. BlumChapter 18—A System for Empirical Experimentation with Expert KnowledgePeter Politakis and Sholom M. WeissChapter 19—PUFF: An Expert System for Interpretation of Pulmonary Function DataJanice S. Aikins, John C. Kunz, Edward H. Shortliffe, and Robert J. FallatChapter 20—Developing Microprocessor-Based Expert Models for Instrument InterpretationSholom M. Weiss, Casimir A. Kulikowski, and Robert S. GalenChapter 21—Anticipating the Second DecadeEdward H. Shortliffe and William J. ClanceyReferencesName IndexSubject IndexAddison-Wesley (out of print)