If you are looking for an answer to the question What is Artificial Intelligence? and you only have a minute, then here's the definition the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence offers on its home page: "the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines."
However, if you are fortunate enough to have more than a minute, then please get ready to embark upon an exciting journey exploring AI (but beware, it could last a lifetime) …
To tackle the susceptibility of deep neural networks to adversarial examples, the adversarial training has been proposed which provides a notion of security through an inner maximization problem presenting the first-order adversaries embedded within the outer minimization of the training loss. To generalize the adversarial robustness over different perturbation types, the adversarial training method has been augmented with the improved inner maximization presenting a union of multiple perturbations e.g., various l However, the improved inner maximization only enjoys limited flexibility in terms of the allowable perturbation types. In this work, through a gating mechanism, we assemble a set of expert networks, each one either adversarially trained to deal with a particular perturbation type or normally trained for boosting accuracy on clean data. The gating module assigns weights dynamically to each expert to achieve superior accuracy under various data types e.g., adversarial examples, adverse weather perturbations, and clean input. In order to deal with the obfuscated gradients issue, the training of the gating module is conducted together with fine-tuning of the last fully connected layers of expert networks through adversarial training approach.
While self-supervised representation learning (SSL) has received widespread attention from the community, recent research argue that its performance will suffer a cliff fall when the model size decreases. The current method mainly relies on contrastive learning to train the network and in this work, we propose a simple yet effective Distilled Contrastive Learning (DisCo) to ease the issue by a large margin. Specifically, we find the final embedding obtained by the mainstream SSL methods contains the most fruitful information, and propose to distill the final embedding to maximally transmit a teacher's knowledge to a lightweight model by constraining the last embedding of the student to be consistent with that of the teacher. In addition, in the experiment, we find that there exists a phenomenon termed Distilling BottleNeck and present to enlarge the embedding dimension to alleviate this problem. Our method does not introduce any extra parameter to lightweight models during deployment. Experimental results demonstrate that our method achieves the state-of-the-art on all lightweight models. Particularly, when ResNet-101/ResNet-50 is used as teacher to teach EfficientNet-B0, the linear result of EfficientNet-B0 on ImageNet is very close to ResNet-101/ResNet-50, but the number of parameters of EfficientNet-B0 is only 9.4%/16.3% of ResNet-101/ResNet-50.
To date, most of recent work under the retrieval-reader framework for open-domain QA focuses on either extractive or generative reader exclusively. In this paper, we study a hybrid approach for leveraging the strengths of both models. We apply novel techniques to enhance both extractive and generative readers built upon recent pretrained neural language models, and find that proper training methods can provide large improvement over previous state-of-the-art models. We demonstrate that a simple hybrid approach by combining answers from both readers can efficiently take advantages of extractive and generative answer inference strategies and outperforms single models as well as homogeneous ensembles. Our approach outperforms previous state-of-the-art models by 3.3 and 2.7 points in exact match on NaturalQuestions and TriviaQA respectively.
Min, Sewon, Boyd-Graber, Jordan, Alberti, Chris, Chen, Danqi, Choi, Eunsol, Collins, Michael, Guu, Kelvin, Hajishirzi, Hannaneh, Lee, Kenton, Palomaki, Jennimaria, Raffel, Colin, Roberts, Adam, Kwiatkowski, Tom, Lewis, Patrick, Wu, Yuxiang, Küttler, Heinrich, Liu, Linqing, Minervini, Pasquale, Stenetorp, Pontus, Riedel, Sebastian, Yang, Sohee, Seo, Minjoon, Izacard, Gautier, Petroni, Fabio, Hosseini, Lucas, De Cao, Nicola, Grave, Edouard, Yamada, Ikuya, Shimaoka, Sonse, Suzuki, Masatoshi, Miyawaki, Shumpei, Sato, Shun, Takahashi, Ryo, Suzuki, Jun, Fajcik, Martin, Docekal, Martin, Ondrej, Karel, Smrz, Pavel, Cheng, Hao, Shen, Yelong, Liu, Xiaodong, He, Pengcheng, Chen, Weizhu, Gao, Jianfeng, Oguz, Barlas, Chen, Xilun, Karpukhin, Vladimir, Peshterliev, Stan, Okhonko, Dmytro, Schlichtkrull, Michael, Gupta, Sonal, Mehdad, Yashar, Yih, Wen-tau
We review the EfficientQA competition from NeurIPS 2020. The competition focused on open-domain question answering (QA), where systems take natural language questions as input and return natural language answers. The aim of the competition was to build systems that can predict correct answers while also satisfying strict on-disk memory budgets. These memory budgets were designed to encourage contestants to explore the trade-off between storing large, redundant, retrieval corpora or the parameters of large learned models. In this report, we describe the motivation and organization of the competition, review the best submissions, and analyze system predictions to inform a discussion of evaluation for open-domain QA.
Current training objectives of existing person Re-IDentification (ReID) models only ensure that the loss of the model decreases on selected training batch, with no regards to the performance on samples outside the batch. It will inevitably cause the model to over-fit the data in the dominant position (e.g., head data in imbalanced class, easy samples or noisy samples). %We call the sample that updates the model towards generalizing on more data a generalizable sample. The latest resampling methods address the issue by designing specific criterion to select specific samples that trains the model generalize more on certain type of data (e.g., hard samples, tail data), which is not adaptive to the inconsistent real world ReID data distributions. Therefore, instead of simply presuming on what samples are generalizable, this paper proposes a one-for-more training objective that directly takes the generalization ability of selected samples as a loss function and learn a sampler to automatically select generalizable samples. More importantly, our proposed one-for-more based sampler can be seamlessly integrated into the ReID training framework which is able to simultaneously train ReID models and the sampler in an end-to-end fashion. The experimental results show that our method can effectively improve the ReID model training and boost the performance of ReID models.
We address the problem of enhancing model robustness through regularization. Specifically, we focus on methods that regularize the model posterior difference between clean and noisy inputs. Theoretically, we provide a connection of two recent methods, Jacobian Regularization and Virtual Adversarial Training, under this framework. Additionally, we generalize the posterior differential regularization to the family of $f$-divergences and characterize the overall regularization framework in terms of Jacobian matrix. Empirically, we systematically compare those regularizations and standard BERT training on a diverse set of tasks to provide a comprehensive profile of their effect on model in-domain and out-of-domain generalization. For both fully supervised and semi-supervised settings, our experiments show that regularizing the posterior differential with $f$-divergence can result in well-improved model robustness. In particular, with a proper $f$-divergence, a BERT-base model can achieve comparable generalization as its BERT-large counterpart for in-domain, adversarial and domain shift scenarios, indicating the great potential of the proposed framework for boosting model generalization for NLP models.
Human-annotated labels are often prone to noise, and the presence of such noise will degrade the performance of the resulting deep neural network (DNN) models. Much of the literature (with several recent exceptions) of learning with noisy labels focuses on the case when the label noise is independent from features. Practically, annotations errors tend to be instance-dependent and often depend on the difficulty levels of recognizing a certain task. Applying existing results from instance-independent settings would require a significant amount of estimation of noise rates. Therefore, learning with instance-dependent label noise remains a challenge. In this paper, we propose CORES^2 (COnfidence REgularized Sample Sieve), which progressively sieves out corrupted samples. The implementation of CORES^2 does not require specifying noise rates and yet we are able to provide theoretical guarantees of CORES^2 in filtering out the corrupted examples. This high-quality sample sieve allows us to treat clean examples and the corrupted ones separately in training a DNN solution, and such a separation is shown to be advantageous in the instance-dependent noise setting. We demonstrate the performance of CORES^2 on CIFAR10 and CIFAR100 datasets with synthetic instance-dependent label noise and Clothing1M with real-world human noise. As of independent interests, our sample sieve provides a generic machinery for anatomizing noisy datasets and provides a flexible interface for various robust training techniques to further improve the performance.
Graph Neural Networks (GNN) has demonstrated the superior performance in many challenging applications, including the few-shot learning tasks. Despite its powerful capacity to learn and generalize the model from few samples, GNN usually suffers from severe over-fitting and over-smoothing as the model becomes deep, which limit the scalability. In this work, we propose a novel Attentive GNN to tackle these challenges, by incorporating a triple-attention mechanism, i.e. node self-attention, neighborhood attention, and layer memory attention. We explain why the proposed attentive modules can improve GNN for few-shot learning with theoretical analysis and illustrations. Extensive experiments show that the proposed Attentive GNN model achieves the promising results, comparing to the state-of-the-art GNN- and CNN-based methods for few-shot learning tasks, over the mini-ImageNet and tiered-ImageNet benchmarks, under ConvNet-4 and ResNet-based backbone with both inductive and transductive settings. The codes will be made publicly available.
With a fixed model structure, knowledge distillation and filter grafting are two effective ways to boost single model accuracy. However, the working mechanism and the differences between distillation and grafting have not been fully unveiled. In this paper, we evaluate the effect of distillation and grafting in the filter level, and find that the impacts of the two techniques are surprisingly complementary: distillation mostly enhances the knowledge of valid filters while grafting mostly reactivates invalid filters. This observation guides us to design a unified training framework called DGD, where distillation and grafting are naturally combined to increase the knowledge density inside the filters given a fixed model structure. Through extensive experiments, we show that the knowledge densified network in DGD shares both advantages of distillation and grafting, lifting the model accuracy to a higher level.
Latent variable prediction models, such as multi-layer networks, impose auxiliary latent variables between inputs and outputs to allow automatic inference of implicit features useful for prediction. Unfortunately, such models are difficult to train because inference over latent variables must be performed concurrently with parameter optimization---creating a highly non-convex problem. Instead of proposing another local training method, we develop a convex relaxation of hidden-layer conditional models that admits global training. Our approach extends current convex modeling approaches to handle two nested nonlinearities separated by a non-trivial adaptive latent layer. The resulting methods are able to acquire two-layer models that cannot be represented by any single-layer model over the same features, while improving training quality over local heuristics.