Chaudhri, Vinay K.


Large-Scale Analogical Reasoning

AAAI Conferences

Cognitive simulation of analogical processing can be used to answer comparison questions such as: What are the similarities and/or differences between A and B, for concepts A and B in a knowledge base (KB). Previous attempts to use a general-purpose analogical reasoner to answer such questions revealed three major problems: (a) the system presented too much information in the answer, and the salient similarity or difference was not highlighted; (b) analogical inference found some incorrect differences; and (c) some expected similarities were not found. The cause of these problems was primarily a lack of a well-curated KB and, and secondarily, algorithmic deficiencies. In this paper, relying on a well-curated biology KB, we present a specific implementation of comparison questions inspired by a general model of analogical reasoning. We present numerous examples of answers produced by the system and empirical data on answer quality to illustrate that we have addressed many of the problems of the previous system.


Intelligent Learning Technologies Part 2: Applications of Artificial Intelligence to Contemporary and Emerging Educational Challenges

AI Magazine

Part Two of the special issue of AI Magazine presents articles on some of the most interesting projects at the intersection of AI and Education. Included are articles on integrated systems such as virtual humans, an intellgent textbook a game-based learning environment as well as technology focused components such as student models and data mining. The issue concludes with an article summarizing the contemporary and emerging challenges at the intersection of AI and education.


AI Grand Challenges for Education

AI Magazine

This article focuses on contributions that AI can make to address long-term educational goals. It describes five challenges that would support: (1) mentors for every learner; (2) learning twenty-first century skills; (3) interaction data to support learning; (4) universal access to global classrooms; and (5) lifelong and life-wide learning. A vision and brief research agenda are described for each challenge along with goals that lead to access to global educational resources and the reuse and sharing of digital educational resources. Instructional systems with AI technology are described that currently support richer experiences for learners and supply researchers with new opportunities to analyze vast data sets of instructional behavior from big databases, containing elements of learning, affect, motivation, and social interaction.


AI Grand Challenges for Education

AI Magazine

This article focuses on contributions that AI can make to address long-term educational goals. It describes five challenges that would support: (1) mentors for every learner; (2) learning twenty-first century skills; (3) interaction data to support learning; (4) universal access to global classrooms; and (5) lifelong and life-wide learning. A vision and brief research agenda are described for each challenge along with goals that lead to access to global educational resources and the reuse and sharing of digital educational resources. Instructional systems with AI technology are described that currently support richer experiences for learners and supply researchers with new opportunities to analyze vast data sets of instructional behavior from big databases, containing elements of learning, affect, motivation, and social interaction. Personalized learning is described using computational tools that enhance student and group experience, reflection, and analysis, and supply data for development of novel theory development.


Intelligent Learning Technologies Part 2: Applications of Artificial Intelligence to Contemporary and Emerging Educational Challenges

AI Magazine

Part Two of the special issue of AI Magazine presents articles on some of the most interesting projects at the intersection of AI and Education. Included are articles on integrated systems such as virtual humans, an intellgent textbook a game-based learning environment as well as technology focused components such as student models and data mining. The issue concludes with an article summarizing the contemporary and emerging challenges at the intersection of AI and education.


Inquire Biology: A Textbook that Answers Questions

AI Magazine

Inquire Biology is a prototype of a new kind of intelligent textbook -- one that answers students' questions, engages their interest, and improves their understanding. Inquire Biology provides unique capabilities via a knowledge representation that captures conceptual knowledge from the textbook and uses inference procedures to answer students' questions. In an initial controlled experiment, community college students using the Inquire Biology prototype outperformed students using either a hardcopy or conventional E-book version of the same biology textbook. While additional research is needed to fully develop Inquire Biology, the initial prototype clearly demonstrates the promise of applying knowledge representation and question-answering technology to electronic textbooks.


Intelligent Learning Technologies: Applications of Artificial Intelligence to Contemporary and Emerging Educational Challenges

AI Magazine

This special issue of AI Magazine presents articles on some of the most interesting projects at the intersection of AI and Education. Included are articles on integrated systems such as virtual humans, an intellgent textbook a game-based learning environment as well as technology focused components such as student models and data mining. The issue concludes with an article summarizing the contemporary and emerging challenges at the intersection of AI and education.


Intelligent Learning Technologies: Applications of Artificial Intelligence to Contemporary and Emerging Educational Challenges

AI Magazine

This special issue of AI Magazine presents articles on some of the most interesting projects at the intersection of AI and Education. Included are articles on integrated systems such as virtual humans, an intellgent textbook a game-based learning environment as well as technology focused components such as student models and data mining. The issue concludes with an article summarizing the contemporary and emerging challenges at the intersection of AI and education.


Inquire Biology: A Textbook that Answers Questions

AI Magazine

Inquire Biology is a prototype of a new kind of intelligent textbook — one that answers students’ questions, engages their interest, and improves their understanding. Inquire Biology provides unique capabilities via a knowledge representation that captures conceptual knowledge from the textbook and uses inference procedures to answer students’ questions. Students ask questions by typing free-form natural language queries or by selecting passages of text. The system then attempts to answer the question and also generates suggested questions related to the query or selection. The questions supported by the system were chosen to be educationally useful, for example: what is the structure of X? compare X and Y? how does X relate to Y? In user studies, students found this question-answering capability to be extremely useful while reading and while doing problem solving. In an initial controlled experiment, community college students using the Inquire Biology prototype outperformed students using either a hardcopy or conventional E-book version of the same biology textbook. While additional research is needed to fully develop Inquire Biology, the initial prototype clearly demonstrates the promise of applying knowledge representation and question-answering technology to electronic textbooks.


Specifying and Reasoning with Underspecified Knowledge Bases Using Answer Set Programming

AAAI Conferences

A large and complex knowledge base that models some aspect of the real world can rarely be fully specified. Two examples of such underspecification are that (i) some of the cardinality constraints are omitted; (ii) some properties of all individual instances of a class are specialized across a class hierarchy, but specific references to which particular values are specialized are omitted. Such knowledge bases are of great practical interest as they are the basis of an empirically tested knowledge acquisition system that has been used to construct a knowledge base from a significant portion of a biology textbook. In this paper, we formalize an underspecified knowledge base using answer set programming, and give a set of rules called UMAP that support inheritance reasoning in such a knowledge base.