If you are looking for an answer to the question What is Artificial Intelligence? and you only have a minute, then here's the definition the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence offers on its home page: "the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines."
However, if you are fortunate enough to have more than a minute, then please get ready to embark upon an exciting journey exploring AI (but beware, it could last a lifetime) …
Off-policy evaluation in reinforcement learning offers the chance of using observational data to improve future outcomes in domains such as healthcare and education, but safe deployment in high stakes settings requires ways of assessing its validity. Traditional measures such as confidence intervals may be insufficient due to noise, limited data and confounding. In this paper we develop a method that could serve as a hybrid human-AI system, to enable human experts to analyze the validity of policy evaluation estimates. This is accomplished by highlighting observations in the data whose removal will have a large effect on the OPE estimate, and formulating a set of rules for choosing which ones to present to domain experts for validation. We develop methods to compute exactly the influence functions for fitted Q-evaluation with two different function classes: kernel-based and linear least squares. Experiments on medical simulations and real-world intensive care unit data demonstrate that our method can be used to identify limitations in the evaluation process and make evaluation more robust.
Background: Elderly patients with MODS have high risk of death and poor prognosis. The performance of current scoring systems assessing the severity of MODS and its mortality remains unsatisfactory. This study aims to develop an interpretable and generalizable model for early mortality prediction in elderly patients with MODS. Methods: The MIMIC-III, eICU-CRD and PLAGH-S databases were employed for model generation and evaluation. We used the eXtreme Gradient Boosting model with the SHapley Additive exPlanations method to conduct early and interpretable predictions of patients' hospital outcome. Three types of data source combinations and five typical evaluation indexes were adopted to develop a generalizable model. Findings: The interpretable model, with optimal performance developed by using MIMIC-III and eICU-CRD datasets, was separately validated in MIMIC-III, eICU-CRD and PLAGH-S datasets (no overlapping with training set). The performances of the model in predicting hospital mortality as validated by the three datasets were: AUC of 0.858, sensitivity of 0.834 and specificity of 0.705; AUC of 0.849, sensitivity of 0.763 and specificity of 0.784; and AUC of 0.838, sensitivity of 0.882 and specificity of 0.691, respectively. Comparisons of AUC between this model and baseline models with MIMIC-III dataset validation showed superior performances of this model; In addition, comparisons in AUC between this model and commonly used clinical scores showed significantly better performance of this model. Interpretation: The interpretable machine learning model developed in this study using fused datasets with large sample sizes was robust and generalizable. This model outperformed the baseline models and several clinical scores for early prediction of mortality in elderly ICU patients. The interpretative nature of this model provided clinicians with the ranking of mortality risk features.
Ensembles depend on diversity for improved performance. Many ensemble training methods, therefore, attempt to optimize for diversity, which they almost always define in terms of differences in training set predictions. In this paper, however, we demonstrate the diversity of predictions on the training set does not necessarily imply diversity under mild co-variate shift, which can harm generalization in practical settings. To address this issue, we introduce a new diversity metric and associated method of training ensembles of models that extrapolate differently on local patches of the data manifold. Across a variety of synthetic and real-world tasks, we find that our method improves generalization and diversity in qualitatively novel ways, especially under data limits and co-variate shift.
In this work, we characterize the doctor-patient relationship using a machine learning-derived trust score. We show that this score has statistically significant racial associations, and that by modeling trust directly we find stronger disparities in care than by stratifying on race. We further demonstrate that mistrust is indicative of worse outcomes, but is only weakly associated with physiologically-created severity scores. Finally, we describe sentiment analysis experiments indicating patients with higher levels of mistrust have worse experiences and interactions with their caregivers. This work is a step towards measuring fairer machine learning in the healthcare domain.
Gottesman, Omer, Johansson, Fredrik, Meier, Joshua, Dent, Jack, Lee, Donghun, Srinivasan, Srivatsan, Zhang, Linying, Ding, Yi, Wihl, David, Peng, Xuefeng, Yao, Jiayu, Lage, Isaac, Mosch, Christopher, Lehman, Li-wei H., Komorowski, Matthieu, Komorowski, Matthieu, Faisal, Aldo, Celi, Leo Anthony, Sontag, David, Doshi-Velez, Finale
Much attention has been devoted recently to the development of machine learning algorithms with the goal of improving treatment policies in healthcare. Reinforcement learning (RL) is a sub-field within machine learning that is concerned with learning how to make sequences of decisions so as to optimize long-term effects. Already, RL algorithms have been proposed to identify decision-making strategies for mechanical ventilation, sepsis management and treatment of schizophrenia. However, before implementing treatment policies learned by black-box algorithms in high-stakes clinical decision problems, special care must be taken in the evaluation of these policies. In this document, our goal is to expose some of the subtleties associated with evaluating RL algorithms in healthcare. We aim to provide a conceptual starting point for clinical and computational researchers to ask the right questions when designing and evaluating algorithms for new ways of treating patients. In the following, we describe how choices about how to summarize a history, variance of statistical estimators, and confounders in more ad-hoc measures can result in unreliable, even misleading estimates of the quality of a treatment policy. We also provide suggestions for mitigating these effects---for while there is much promise for mining observational health data to uncover better treatment policies, evaluation must be performed thoughtfully.
Objective: We investigate whether deep learning techniques for natural language processing (NLP) can be used efficiently for patient phenotyping. Patient phenotyping is a classification task for determining whether a patient has a medical condition, and is a crucial part of secondary analysis of healthcare data. We assess the performance of deep learning algorithms and compare them with classical NLP approaches. Materials and Methods: We compare convolutional neural networks (CNNs), n-gram models, and approaches based on cTAKES that extract pre-defined medical concepts from clinical notes and use them to predict patient phenotypes. The performance is tested on 10 different phenotyping tasks using 1,610 discharge summaries extracted from the MIMIC-III database. Results: CNNs outperform other phenotyping algorithms in all 10 tasks. The average F1-score of our model is 76 (PPV of 83, and sensitivity of 71) with our model having an F1-score up to 37 points higher than alternative approaches. We additionally assess the interpretability of our model by presenting a method that extracts the most salient phrases for a particular prediction. Conclusion: We show that NLP methods based on deep learning improve the performance of patient phenotyping. Our CNN-based algorithm automatically learns the phrases associated with each patient phenotype. As such, it reduces the annotation complexity for clinical domain experts, who are normally required to develop task-specific annotation rules and identify relevant phrases. Our method performs well in terms of both performance and interpretability, which indicates that deep learning is an effective approach to patient phenotyping based on clinicians' notes.