Machine learning has always been an integral part of artificial intelligence, and its methodology has evolved in concert with the major concerns of the field. In response to the difficulties of encoding ever-increasing volumes of knowledge in modern AI systems, many researchers have recently turned their attention to machine learning as a means to overcome the knowledge acquisition bottleneck. This article presents a taxonomic analysis of machine learning organized primarily by learning strategies and secondarily by knowledge representation and application areas. A historical survey outlining the development of various approaches to machine learning is presented from early neural networks to present knowledge-intensive techniques.
Carbonell, Jaime G., Sleeman, Derek
Two closely related aspects of artificial intelligence that have received comparatively little attention in the recent literature are research methodology, and the analysis of computational techniques that span multiple application areas. We believe both issues to be increasingly significant as Artificial Intelligence matures into a science and spins off major application efforts. Similarly, awareness of research methodology issues can help plan future research buy learning from past successes and failures. We view the study of research methodology to be similar to the analysis of operational AI techniques, but at a meta-level; that is, research methodology analyzes the techniques and methods used by the researchers themselves, rather than their programs, to resolve issues of selecting interesting and tractable problems to investigate, and of deciding how to proceed with their investigations.
Carbonell, Jaime G.
AI research at CMU is closely integrated with other activities in the Computer Science Department, and to a major degree with ongoing research in the Psychology Department. Although there are over 50 faculty, staff and graduate students involved in various aspects of AI research, there is no administratively (or physically) separate AI laboratory. To underscore the interdisciplinary nature of our AI research, a significant fraction of the projects listed below are joint ventures between computer science and psychology.