Brewka, Gerhard


Reactive Multi-Context Systems: Heterogeneous Reasoning in Dynamic Environments

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Managed multi-context systems (mMCSs) allow for the integration of heterogeneous knowledge sources in a modular and very general way. They were, however, mainly designed for static scenarios and are therefore not well-suited for dynamic environments in which continuous reasoning over such heterogeneous knowledge with constantly arriving streams of data is necessary. In this paper, we introduce reactive multi-context systems (rMCSs), a framework for reactive reasoning in the presence of heterogeneous knowledge sources and data streams. We show that rMCSs are indeed well-suited for this purpose by illustrating how several typical problems arising in the context of stream reasoning can be handled using them, by showing how inconsistencies possibly occurring in the integration of multiple knowledge sources can be handled, and by arguing that the potential non-determinism of rMCSs can be avoided if needed using an alternative, more skeptical well-founded semantics instead with beneficial computational properties. We also investigate the computational complexity of various reasoning problems related to rMCSs. Finally, we discuss related work, and show that rMCSs do not only generalize mMCSs to dynamic settings, but also capture/extend relevant approaches w.r.t. dynamics in knowledge representation and stream reasoning.


Answer Set Programming: An Introduction to the Special Issue

AI Magazine

This editorial introduces answer set programming, a vibrant research area in computational knowledge representation and declarative programming. We give a brief overview of the articles that form this special issue on answer set programming and of the main topics they discuss.


Answer Set Programming: An Introduction to the Special Issue

AI Magazine

This editorial introduces answer set programming, a vibrant research area in computational knowledge representation and declarative programming. We give a brief overview of the articles that form this special issue on answer set programming and of the main topics they discuss.


AGM Meets Abstract Argumentation: Expansion and Revision for Dung Frameworks

AAAI Conferences

In this paper we combine two of the most important areas of knowledge representation, namely belief revision and (abstract) argumentation. More precisely, we show how AGM-style expansion and revision operators can be defined for Dung's abstract argumentation frameworks (AFs). Our approach is based on a reformulation of the original AGM postulates for revision in terms of monotonic consequence relations for AFs. The latter are defined via a new family of logics, called Dung logics, which satisfy the important property that ordinary equivalence in these logics coincides with strong equivalence for the respective argumentation semantics. Based on these logics we define expansion as usual via intersection of models. We show the existence of such operators. This is far from trivial and requires to study realizability in the context of Dung logics. We then study revision operators. We show why standard approaches based on a distance measure on models do not work for AFs and present an operator satisfying all postulates for a specific Dung logic.


Abstract Dialectical Frameworks

AAAI Conferences

In this paper we introduce dialectical frameworks, a powerful generalization of Dung-style argumentation frameworks where each node comes with an associated acceptance condition. This allows us to model different types of dependencies, e.g. support and attack, as well as different types of nodes within a single framework. We show that Dung's standard semantics can be generalized to dialectical frameworks, in case of stable and preferred semantics to a slightly restricted class which we call bipolar frameworks. We show how acceptance conditions can be conveniently represented using weights respectively priorities on the links and demonstrate how some of the legal proof standards can be modeled based on this idea.


Preferences and Nonmonotonic Reasoning

AI Magazine

Selecting extended logic programming with the answer-set semantics as a "generic" nonmonotonic logic, we show how that logic defines preferred belief sets and how preferred belief sets allow us to represent and interpret normative statements. Conflicts among program rules (more generally, defaults) give rise to alternative preferred belief sets. Finally, we comment on formalisms which explicitly represent preferences on properties of belief sets. Such formalisms either build preference information directly into rules and modify the semantics of the logic appropriately, or specify preferences on belief sets independently of the mechanism to define them.


Preferences and Nonmonotonic Reasoning

AI Magazine

We give an overview of the multifaceted relationship between nonmonotonic logics and preferences. We discuss how the nonmonotonicity of reasoning itself is closely tied to preferences reasoners have on models of the world or, as we often say here, possible belief sets. Selecting extended logic programming with the answer-set semantics as a "generic" nonmonotonic logic, we show how that logic defines preferred belief sets and how preferred belief sets allow us to represent and interpret normative statements. Conflicts among program rules (more generally, defaults) give rise to alternative preferred belief sets. We discuss how such conflicts can be resolved based on implicit specificity or on explicit rankings of defaults. Finally, we comment on formalisms which explicitly represent preferences on properties of belief sets. Such formalisms either build preference information directly into rules and modify the semantics of the logic appropriately, or specify preferences on belief sets independently of the mechanism to define them.


Report on the Seventh International Workshop on Nonmonotonic Reasoning

AI Magazine

The Seventh International Workshop on Nonmonotonic Reasoning was held in Trento, Italy, on 30 May to 1 June 1998 in conjunction with the Sixth International Conference on the Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning (KR-98). The workshop was sponsored by the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence, Compulog, Associazione Italiana per l'Intelligenza Artificiale, and the Prolog Development Center.


Report on the Seventh International Workshop on Nonmonotonic Reasoning

AI Magazine

The Seventh International Workshop on Nonmonotonic Reasoning was held in Trento, Italy, on 30 May to 1 June 1998 in conjunction with the Sixth International Conference on the Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning (KR-98). The workshop was sponsored by the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence, Compulog, Associazione Italiana per l'Intelligenza Artificiale, and the Prolog Development Center.