Bengio, Yoshua


Establishing an Evaluation Metric to Quantify Climate Change Image Realism

arXiv.org Machine Learning

With success on controlled tasks, generative models are being increasingly applied to humanitarian applications [1,2]. In this paper, we focus on the evaluation of a conditional generative model that illustrates the consequences of climate change-induced flooding to encourage public interest and awareness on the issue. Because metrics for comparing the realism of different modes in a conditional generative model do not exist, we propose several automated and human-based methods for evaluation. To do this, we adapt several existing metrics, and assess the automated metrics against gold standard human evaluation. We find that using Fr\'echet Inception Distance (FID) with embeddings from an intermediary Inception-V3 layer that precedes the auxiliary classifier produces results most correlated with human realism. While insufficient alone to establish a human-correlated automatic evaluation metric, we believe this work begins to bridge the gap between human and automated generative evaluation procedures.


Icentia11K: An Unsupervised Representation Learning Dataset for Arrhythmia Subtype Discovery

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We release the largest public ECG dataset of continuous raw signals for representation learning containing 11 thousand patients and 2 billion labelled beats. Our goal is to enable semi-supervised ECG models to be made as well as to discover unknown subtypes of arrhythmia and anomalous ECG signal events. To this end, we propose an unsupervised representation learning task, evaluated in a semi-supervised fashion. We provide a set of baselines for different feature extractors that can be built upon. Additionally, we perform qualitative evaluations on results from PCA embeddings, where we identify some clustering of known sub-types indicating the potential for representation learning in arrhythmia sub-type discovery. Arrhythmia detection is presently performed by cardiologists or technologists familiar with ECG readings. Recently, supervised machine learning has been successfully applied to perform detection of certain types of arrhythmia (Hannun et al., 2019; Yıldırım et al., 2018; Minchol e & Rodriguez, 2019; Porumb et al., 2020).


Predicting ice flow using machine learning

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Though machine learning has achieved notable success in modeling sequential and spatial data for speech recognition and in computer vision, applications to remote sensing and climate science problems are seldom considered. In this paper, we demonstrate techniques from unsupervised learning of future video frame prediction, to increase the accuracy of ice flow tracking in multi-spectral satellite images. As the volume of cryosphere data increases in coming years, this is an interesting and important opportunity for machine learning to address a global challenge for climate change, risk management from floods, and conserving freshwater resources. Future frame prediction of ice melt and tracking the optical flow of ice dynamics presents modeling difficulties, due to uncertainties in global temperature increase, changing precipitation patterns, occlusion from cloud cover, rapid melting and glacier retreat due to black carbon aerosol deposition, from wildfires or human fossil emissions. We show the adversarial learning method helps improve the accuracy of tracking the optical flow of ice dynamics compared to existing methods in climate science. We present a dataset, IceNet, to encourage machine learning research and to help facilitate further applications in the areas of cryospheric science and climate change.


Learning Neural Causal Models from Unknown Interventions

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Meta-learning over a set of distributions can be interpreted as learning different types of parameters corresponding to short-term vs long-term aspects of the mechanisms underlying the generation of data. These are respectively captured by quickly-changing parameters and slowly-changing meta-parameters. We present a new framework for meta-learning causal models where the relationship between each variable and its parents is modeled by a neural network, modulated by structural meta-parameters which capture the overall topology of a directed graphical model. Our approach avoids a discrete search over models in favour of a continuous optimization procedure. We study a setting where interventional distributions are induced as a result of a random intervention on a single unknown variable of an unknown ground truth causal model, and the observations arising after such an intervention constitute one meta-example. To disentangle the slow-changing aspects of each conditional from the fast-changing adaptations to each intervention, we parametrize the neural network into fast parameters and slow meta-parameters. We introduce a meta-learning objective that favours solutions robust to frequent but sparse interventional distribution change, and which generalize well to previously unseen interventions. Optimizing this objective is shown experimentally to recover the structure of the causal graph.


Variational Temporal Abstraction

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We introduce a variational approach to learning and inference of temporally hierarchical structure and representation for sequential data. We propose the Variational Temporal Abstraction (VTA), a hierarchical recurrent state space model that can infer the latent temporal structure and thus perform the stochastic state transition hierarchically. We also propose to apply this model to implement the jumpy-imagination ability in imagination-augmented agent-learning in order to improve the efficiency of the imagination. In experiments, we demonstrate that our proposed method can model 2D and 3D visual sequence datasets with interpretable temporal structure discovery and that its application to jumpy imagination enables more efficient agent-learning in a 3D navigation task.


GraphMix: Regularized Training of Graph Neural Networks for Semi-Supervised Learning

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We present GraphMix, a regularization technique for Graph Neural Network based semi-supervised object classification, leveraging the recent advances in the regularization of classical deep neural networks. Specifically, we propose a unified approach in which we train a fully-connected network jointly with the graph neural network via parameter sharing, interpolation-based regularization, and self-predicted-targets. Our proposed method is architecture agnostic in the sense that it can be applied to any variant of graph neural networks which applies a parametric transformation to the features of the graph nodes. Despite its simplicity, with GraphMix we can consistently improve results and achieve or closely match state-of-the-art performance using even simpler architectures such as Graph Convolutional Networks, across three established graph benchmarks: the Cora, Citeseer and Pubmed citation network datasets, as well as three newly proposed datasets : Cora-Full, Co-author-CS and Co-author-Physics.


Avoidance Learning Using Observational Reinforcement Learning

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Imitation learning seeks to learn an expert policy from sampled demonstrations. However, in the real world, it is often difficult to find a perfect expert and avoiding dangerous behaviors becomes relevant for safety reasons. We present the idea of \textit{learning to avoid}, an objective opposite to imitation learning in some sense, where an agent learns to avoid a demonstrator policy given an environment. We define avoidance learning as the process of optimizing the agent's reward while avoiding dangerous behaviors given by a demonstrator. In this work we develop a framework of avoidance learning by defining a suitable objective function for these problems which involves the \emph{distance} of state occupancy distributions of the expert and demonstrator policies. We use density estimates for state occupancy measures and use the aforementioned distance as the reward bonus for avoiding the demonstrator. We validate our theory with experiments using a wide range of partially observable environments. Experimental results show that we are able to improve sample efficiency during training compared to state of the art policy optimization and safety methods.


Recurrent Independent Mechanisms

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Learning modular structures which reflect the dynamics of the environment can lead to better generalization and robustness to changes which only affect a few of the underlying causes. We propose Recurrent Independent Mechanisms (RIMs), a new recurrent architecture in which multiple groups of recurrent cells operate with nearly independent transition dynamics, communicate only sparingly through the bottleneck of attention, and are only updated at time steps where they are most relevant. We show that this leads to specialization amongst the RIMs, which in turn allows for dramatically improved generalization on tasks where some factors of variation differ systematically between training and evaluation.


Torchmeta: A Meta-Learning library for PyTorch

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The constant introduction of standardized benchmarks in the literature has helped accelerating the recent advances in meta-learning research. They offer a way to get a fair comparison between different algorithms, and the wide range of datasets available allows full control over the complexity of this evaluation. However, for a large majority of code available online, the data pipeline is often specific to one dataset, and testing on another dataset requires significant rework. We introduce Torchmeta, a library built on top of PyTorch that enables seamless and consistent evaluation of meta-learning algorithms on multiple datasets, by providing data-loaders for most of the standard benchmarks in few-shot classification and regression, with a new meta-dataset abstraction. It also features some extensions for PyTorch to simplify the development of models compatible with meta-learning algorithms. The code is available here: https://github.com/tristandeleu/pytorch-meta


Data-Driven Approach to Encoding and Decoding 3-D Crystal Structures

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Generative models have achieved impressive results in many domains including image and text generation. In the natural sciences, generative models have led to rapid progress in automated drug discovery. Many of the current methods focus on either 1-D or 2-D representations of typically small, drug-like molecules. However, many molecules require 3-D descriptors and exceed the chemical complexity of commonly used dataset. We present a method to encode and decode the position of atoms in 3-D molecules from a dataset of nearly 50,000 stable crystal unit cells that vary from containing 1 to over 100 atoms. We construct a smooth and continuous 3-D density representation of each crystal based on the positions of different atoms. Two different neural networks were trained on a dataset of over 120,000 three-dimensional samples of single and repeating crystal structures, made by rotating the single unit cells. The first, an Encoder-Decoder pair, constructs a compressed latent space representation of each molecule and then decodes this description into an accurate reconstruction of the input. The second network segments the resulting output into atoms and assigns each atom an atomic number. By generating compressed, continuous latent spaces representations of molecules we are able to decode random samples, interpolate between two molecules, and alter known molecules.