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Collaborating Authors

Bengio, Yoshua


Predicting Unreliable Predictions by Shattering a Neural Network

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Piecewise linear neural networks can be split into subfunctions, each with its own activation pattern, domain, and empirical error. Empirical error for the full network can be written as an expectation over empirical error of subfunctions. Constructing a generalization bound on subfunction empirical error indicates that the more densely a subfunction is surrounded by training samples in representation space, the more reliable its predictions are. Further, it suggests that models with fewer activation regions generalize better, and models that abstract knowledge to a greater degree generalize better, all else equal. We propose not only a theoretical framework to reason about subfunction error bounds but also a pragmatic way of approximately evaluating it, which we apply to predicting which samples the network will not successfully generalize to. We test our method on detection of misclassification and out-of-distribution samples, finding that it performs competitively in both cases. In short, some network activation patterns are associated with higher reliability than others, and these can be identified using subfunction error bounds.


Variational Causal Networks: Approximate Bayesian Inference over Causal Structures

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Learning the causal structure that underlies data is a crucial step towards robust real-world decision making. The majority of existing work in causal inference focuses on determining a single directed acyclic graph (DAG) or a Markov equivalence class thereof. However, a crucial aspect to acting intelligently upon the knowledge about causal structure which has been inferred from finite data demands reasoning about its uncertainty. For instance, planning interventions to find out more about the causal mechanisms that govern our data requires quantifying epistemic uncertainty over DAGs. While Bayesian causal inference allows to do so, the posterior over DAGs becomes intractable even for a small number of variables. Aiming to overcome this issue, we propose a form of variational inference over the graphs of Structural Causal Models (SCMs). To this end, we introduce a parametric variational family modelled by an autoregressive distribution over the space of discrete DAGs. Its number of parameters does not grow exponentially with the number of variables and can be tractably learned by maximising an Evidence Lower Bound (ELBO). In our experiments, we demonstrate that the proposed variational posterior is able to provide a good approximation of the true posterior.


Invariance Principle Meets Information Bottleneck for Out-of-Distribution Generalization

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The invariance principle from causality is at the heart of notable approaches such as invariant risk minimization (IRM) that seek to address out-of-distribution (OOD) generalization failures. Despite the promising theory, invariance principle-based approaches fail in common classification tasks, where invariant (causal) features capture all the information about the label. Are these failures due to the methods failing to capture the invariance? Or is the invariance principle itself insufficient? To answer these questions, we revisit the fundamental assumptions in linear regression tasks, where invariance-based approaches were shown to provably generalize OOD. In contrast to the linear regression tasks, we show that for linear classification tasks we need much stronger restrictions on the distribution shifts, or otherwise OOD generalization is impossible. Furthermore, even with appropriate restrictions on distribution shifts in place, we show that the invariance principle alone is insufficient. We prove that a form of the information bottleneck constraint along with invariance helps address key failures when invariant features capture all the information about the label and also retains the existing success when they do not. We propose an approach that incorporates both of these principles and demonstrate its effectiveness in several experiments.


SpeechBrain: A General-Purpose Speech Toolkit

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

SpeechBrain is an open-source and all-in-one speech toolkit. It is designed to facilitate the research and development of neural speech processing technologies by being simple, flexible, user-friendly, and well-documented. This paper describes the core architecture designed to support several tasks of common interest, allowing users to naturally conceive, compare and share novel speech processing pipelines. SpeechBrain achieves competitive or state-of-the-art performance in a wide range of speech benchmarks. It also provides training recipes, pretrained models, and inference scripts for popular speech datasets, as well as tutorials which allow anyone with basic Python proficiency to familiarize themselves with speech technologies.


A Consciousness-Inspired Planning Agent for Model-Based Reinforcement Learning

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We present an end-to-end, model-based deep reinforcement learning agent which dynamically attends to relevant parts of its state, in order to plan and to generalize better out-of-distribution. The agent's architecture uses a set representation and a bottleneck mechanism, forcing the number of entities to which the agent attends at each planning step to be small. In experiments with customized MiniGrid environments with different dynamics, we observe that the design allows agents to learn to plan effectively, by attending to the relevant objects, leading to better out-of-distribution generalization.


Fast and Slow Learning of Recurrent Independent Mechanisms

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Decomposing knowledge into interchangeable pieces promises a generalization advantage when there are changes in distribution. A learning agent interacting with its environment is likely to be faced with situations requiring novel combinations of existing pieces of knowledge. We hypothesize that such a decomposition of knowledge is particularly relevant for being able to generalize in a systematic manner to out-of-distribution changes. To study these ideas, we propose a particular training framework in which we assume that the pieces of knowledge an agent needs and its reward function are stationary and can be re-used across tasks. An attention mechanism dynamically selects which modules can be adapted to the current task, and the parameters of the selected modules are allowed to change quickly as the learner is confronted with variations in what it experiences, while the parameters of the attention mechanisms act as stable, slowly changing, meta-parameters. We focus on pieces of knowledge captured by an ensemble of modules sparsely communicating with each other via a bottleneck of attention. We find that meta-learning the modular aspects of the proposed system greatly helps in achieving faster adaptation in a reinforcement learning setup involving navigation in a partially observed grid world with image-level input. We also find that reversing the role of parameters and meta-parameters does not work nearly as well, suggesting a particular role for fast adaptation of the dynamically selected modules.


Comparative Study of Learning Outcomes for Online Learning Platforms

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Personalization and active learning are key aspects to successful learning. These aspects are important to address in intelligent educational applications, as they help systems to adapt and close the gap between students with varying abilities, which becomes increasingly important in the context of online and distance learning. We run a comparative head-to-head study of learning outcomes for two popular online learning platforms: Platform A, which follows a traditional model delivering content over a series of lecture videos and multiple-choice quizzes, and Platform B, which creates a personalized learning environment and provides problem-solving exercises and personalized feedback. We report on the results of our study using pre- and post-assessment quizzes with participants taking courses on an introductory data science topic on two platforms. We observe a statistically significant increase in the learning outcomes on Platform B, highlighting the impact of well-designed and well-engineered technology supporting active learning and problem-based learning in online education. Moreover, the results of the self-assessment questionnaire, where participants reported on perceived learning gains, suggest that participants using Platform B improve their metacognition.


Neural Production Systems

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Visual environments are structured, consisting of distinct objects or entities. These entities have properties -- both visible and latent -- that determine the manner in which they interact with one another. To partition images into entities, deep-learning researchers have proposed structural inductive biases such as slot-based architectures. To model interactions among entities, equivariant graph neural nets (GNNs) are used, but these are not particularly well suited to the task for two reasons. First, GNNs do not predispose interactions to be sparse, as relationships among independent entities are likely to be. Second, GNNs do not factorize knowledge about interactions in an entity-conditional manner. As an alternative, we take inspiration from cognitive science and resurrect a classic approach, production systems, which consist of a set of rule templates that are applied by binding placeholder variables in the rules to specific entities. Rules are scored on their match to entities, and the best fitting rules are applied to update entity properties. In a series of experiments, we demonstrate that this architecture achieves a flexible, dynamic flow of control and serves to factorize entity-specific and rule-based information. This disentangling of knowledge achieves robust future-state prediction in rich visual environments, outperforming state-of-the-art methods using GNNs, and allows for the extrapolation from simple (few object) environments to more complex environments.


Coordination Among Neural Modules Through a Shared Global Workspace

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Deep learning has seen a movement away from representing examples with a monolithic hidden state towards a richly structured state. For example, Transformers segment by position, and object-centric architectures decompose images into entities. In all these architectures, interactions between different elements are modeled via pairwise interactions: Transformers make use of self-attention to incorporate information from other positions; object-centric architectures make use of graph neural networks to model interactions among entities. However, pairwise interactions may not achieve global coordination or a coherent, integrated representation that can be used for downstream tasks. In cognitive science, a global workspace architecture has been proposed in which functionally specialized components share information through a common, bandwidth-limited communication channel. We explore the use of such a communication channel in the context of deep learning for modeling the structure of complex environments. The proposed method includes a shared workspace through which communication among different specialist modules takes place but due to limits on the communication bandwidth, specialist modules must compete for access. We show that capacity limitations have a rational basis in that (1) they encourage specialization and compositionality and (2) they facilitate the synchronization of otherwise independent specialists.


Transformers with Competitive Ensembles of Independent Mechanisms

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

An important development in deep learning from the earliest MLPs has been a move towards architectures with structural inductive biases which enable the model to keep distinct sources of information and routes of processing well-separated. This structure is linked to the notion of independent mechanisms from the causality literature, in which a mechanism is able to retain the same processing as irrelevant aspects of the world are changed. For example, convnets enable separation over positions, while attention-based architectures (especially Transformers) learn which combination of positions to process dynamically. In this work we explore a way in which the Transformer architecture is deficient: it represents each position with a large monolithic hidden representation and a single set of parameters which are applied over the entire hidden representation. This potentially throws unrelated sources of information together, and limits the Transformer's ability to capture independent mechanisms. To address this, we propose Transformers with Independent Mechanisms (TIM), a new Transformer layer which divides the hidden representation and parameters into multiple mechanisms, which only exchange information through attention. Additionally, we propose a competition mechanism which encourages these mechanisms to specialize over time steps, and thus be more independent. We study TIM on a large-scale BERT model, on the Image Transformer, and on speech enhancement and find evidence for semantically meaningful specialization as well as improved performance.