If you are looking for an answer to the question What is Artificial Intelligence? and you only have a minute, then here's the definition the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence offers on its home page: "the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines."
However, if you are fortunate enough to have more than a minute, then please get ready to embark upon an exciting journey exploring AI (but beware, it could last a lifetime) …
Mitra, Arindam, Baral, Chitta
Over these years the Artificial Intelligence (AI) community has produced several datasets which have given the machine learning algorithms the opportunity to learn various skills across various domains. However, a subclass of these machine learning algorithms that aimed at learning logic programs, namely the Inductive Logic Programming algorithms, have often failed at the task due to the vastness of these datasets. This has impacted the usability of knowledge representation and reasoning techniques in the development of AI systems. In this research, we try to address this scalability issue for the algorithms that learn Answer Set Programs. We present a sound and complete algorithm which takes the input in a slightly different manner and perform an efficient and more user controlled search for a solution. We show via experiments that our algorithm can learn from two popular datasets from machine learning community, namely bAbl (a question answering dataset) and MNIST (a dataset for handwritten digit recognition), which to the best of our knowledge was not previously possible. The system is publicly available at https://goo.gl/KdWAcV.
Concerned about the Turing test's ability to correctly evaluate if a system exhibits human-like intelligence, the Winograd Schema Challenge (WSC) has been proposed as an alternative. A Winograd Schema consists of a sentence and a question. The answers to the questions are intuitive for humans but are designed to be difficult for machines, as they require various forms of commonsense knowledge about the sentence. In this paper we demonstrate our progress towards addressing the WSC. We present an approach that identifies the knowledge needed to answer a challenge question, hunts down that knowledge from text repositories, and then reasons with them to come up with the answer. In the process we develop a semantic parser (www.kparser.org). We show that our approach works well with respect to a subset of Winograd schemas.
The paper proposes a condition for preserving the KD45 property of a Kripke model when a sequence of update models is applied to it. The paper defines the notions of a primitive update model and a semi-reflexive KD45 (or sr-KD45) Kripke model. It proves that updating a sr-KD45 Kripke model using a primitive update model results in a sr-KD45 Kripke model, i.e., a primitive update model preserves the properties of a sr-KD45 Kripke model. It shows that several update models for modeling well-known actions found in the literature are primitive. This result provides guarantees that can be useful in presence of multiple applications of actions in multi-agent system (e.g., multi-agent planning).
Understanding biological pathways is an important activity in the biological domain for drug development. Due to the parallelism and complexity inherent in pathways, computer models that can answer queries about pathways are needed. A researcher may ask `what-if' questions comparing alternate scenarios, that require deeper understanding of the underlying model. In this paper, we present overview of such a system we developed and an English-like high level language to express pathways and queries. Our language is inspired by high level action and query languages and it uses Petri Net execution semantics.
One of our long term research goals is to develop systems to answer realistic questions (e.g., some mentioned in textbooks) about biological pathways that a biologist may ask. To answer such questions we need formalisms that can model pathways, simulate their execution, model intervention to those pathways, and compare simulations under different circumstances. We found Petri Nets to be the starting point of a suitable formalism for the modeling and simulation needs. However, we need to make extensions to the Petri Net model and also reason with multiple simulation runs and parallel state evolutions. Towards that end Answer Set Programming (ASP) implementation of Petri Nets would allow us to do both. In this paper we show how ASP can be used to encode basic Petri Nets in an intuitive manner. We then show how we can modify this encoding to model several Petri Net extensions by making small changes. We then highlight some of the reasoning capabilities that we will use to accomplish our ultimate research goal.
Answering realistic questions about biological systems and pathways similar to the ones used by text books to test understanding of students about biological systems is one of our long term research goals. Often these questions require simulation based reasoning. To answer such questions, we need formalisms to build pathway models, add extensions, simulate, and reason with them. We chose Petri Nets and Answer Set Programming (ASP) as suitable formalisms, since Petri Net models are similar to biological pathway diagrams; and ASP provides easy extension and strong reasoning abilities. We found that certain aspects of biological pathways, such as locations and substance types, cannot be represented succinctly using regular Petri Nets. As a result, we need higher level constructs like colored tokens. In this paper, we show how Petri Nets with colored tokens can be encoded in ASP in an intuitive manner, how additional Petri Net extensions can be added by making small code changes, and how this work furthers our long term research goals. Our approach can be adapted to other domains with similar modeling needs.
Our broader goal is to automatically translate English sentences into formulas in appropriate knowledge representation languages as a step towards understanding and thus answering questions with respect to English text. Our focus in this paper is on the language of Answer Set Programming (ASP). Our approach to translate sentences to ASP rules is inspired by Montague's use of lambda calculus formulas as meaning of words and phrases. With ASP as the target language the meaning of words and phrases are ASP-lambda formulas. In an earlier work we illustrated our approach by manually developing a dictionary of words and their ASP-lambda formulas. However such an approach is not scalable. In this paper our focus is on two algorithms that allow one to construct ASP-lambda formulas in an inverse manner. In particular the two algorithms take as input two lambda-calculus expressions G and H and compute a lambda-calculus expression F such that F with input as G, denoted by F@G, is equal to H; and similarly G@F = H. We present correctness and complexity results about these algorithms. To do that we develop the notion of typed ASP-lambda calculus theories and their orders and use it in developing the completeness results. (To appear in Theory and Practice of Logic Programming.)
We present a system capable of automatically solving combinatorial logic puzzles given in (simplified) English. It uses an ontology to represent the puzzles in ASP which is applicable to a large set of logic puzzles. To translate the English descriptions of the puzzles into this ontology, we use a lambda-calculus based approach using Probabilistic Combinatorial Categorial Grammars (PCCG) where the meanings of words are associated with parameters to be able to distinguish between multiple meanings of the same word.
In this paper we encode some of the reasoning methods used in frame based knowledge representation languages in answer set programming (ASP). In particular, we show how ``cloning'' and ``unification'' in frame based systems can be encoded in ASP. We then show how some of the types of queries with respect to a biological knowledge base can be encoded using our methodology. We also provide insight on how the reasoning can be done more efficiently when dealing with a huge knowledge base.
Baral, Chitta, Dzifcak, Juraj
We present a system capable of automatically solving combinatorial logic puzzles given in (simplified) English. It involves translating the English descriptions of the puzzles into answer set programming(ASP) and using ASP solvers to provide solutions of the puzzles. To translate the descriptions, we use a lambda-calculus based approach using Probabilistic Combinatorial Categorial Grammars (PCCG) where the meanings of words are associated with parameters to be able to distinguish between multiple meanings of the same word. Meaning of many words and the parameters are learned. The puzzles are represented in ASP using an ontology which is applicable to a large set of logic puzzles.