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Explanation & Argumentation


An introduction to Explainable Artificial Intelligence or xAI

#artificialintelligence

A few years ago, when I was still working for IBM, I managed an AI project for a bank. During the final phase, my team and I went to the steering committee to present the results. Proud as the project leader, I have shown that the model has achieved 98 percent accuracy in detecting fraudulent transactions. In my manager's eyes, I could see a general panic when I explained that we used an artificial neural network, that it worked with a synapse system and weight adjustments. Although very efficient, there was no way to understand its logic objectively. Even if it was based on real facts, this raw explanation conditioned the project's continuity at that time, unless we could provide a full explanation that the senior executive could understand and trust.


An introduction to Explainable Artificial Intelligence or xAI

#artificialintelligence

A few years ago, when I was still working for IBM, I managed an AI project for a bank. During the final phase, my team and I went to the steering committee to present the results. Proud as the project leader, I have shown that the model has achieved 98 percent accuracy in detecting fraudulent transactions. In my manager's eyes, I could see a general panic when I explained that we used an artificial neural network, that it worked with a synapse system and weight adjustments. Although very efficient, there was no way to understand its logic objectively.


Introduction to Explainable AI(XAI) using LIME - GeeksforGeeks

#artificialintelligence

The vast field of Artificial Intelligence(AI) has experienced enormous growth in recent years. With newer and more complex models coming each year, AI models have started to surpass human intellect at a pace that no one could have predicted. But as we get more accurate and precise results, it's becoming harder to explain the reasoning behind the complex mathematical decisions these models take. This mathematical abstraction also doesn't help the users maintain their trust in a particular model's decisions. Though the model might have given the correct diagnosis, a doctor can't really advise a patient confidently as he/she doesn't know the reasoning behind the said model's diagnosis.


How explainable artificial intelligence can help humans innovate

AIHub

The field of artificial intelligence (AI) has created computers that can drive cars, synthesize chemical compounds, fold proteins and detect high-energy particles at a superhuman level. However, these AI algorithms cannot explain the thought processes behind their decisions. A computer that masters protein folding and also tells researchers more about the rules of biology is much more useful than a computer that folds proteins without explanation. Therefore, AI researchers like me are now turning our efforts toward developing AI algorithms that can explain themselves in a manner that humans can understand. If we can do this, I believe that AI will be able to uncover and teach people new facts about the world that have not yet been discovered, leading to new innovations.


Why it's vital that AI is able to explain the decisions it makes

#artificialintelligence

Currently, our algorithm is able to consider a human plan for solving the Rubik's Cube, suggest improvements to the plan, recognize plans that do not work and find alternatives that do. In doing so, it gives feedback that leads to a step-by-step plan for solving the Rubik's Cube that a person can understand. Our team's next step is to build an intuitive interface that will allow our algorithm to teach people how to solve the Rubik's Cube. Our hope is to generalize this approach to a wide range of pathfinding problems.


How explainable artificial intelligence can help humans innovate

#artificialintelligence

The field of artificial intelligence (AI) has created computers that can drive cars, synthesize chemical compounds, fold proteins and detect high-energy particles at a superhuman level. However, these AI algorithms cannot explain the thought processes behind their decisions. A computer that masters protein folding and also tells researchers more about the rules of biology is much more useful than a computer that folds proteins without explanation. Therefore, AI researchers like me are now turning our efforts toward developing AI algorithms that can explain themselves in a manner that humans can understand. If we can do this, I believe that AI will be able to uncover and teach people new facts about the world that have not yet been discovered, leading to new innovations.


Understanding the Effect of Out-of-distribution Examples and Interactive Explanations on Human-AI Decision Making

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Although AI holds promise for improving human decision making in societally critical domains, it remains an open question how human-AI teams can reliably outperform AI alone and human alone in challenging prediction tasks (also known as complementary performance). We explore two directions to understand the gaps in achieving complementary performance. First, we argue that the typical experimental setup limits the potential of human-AI teams. To account for lower AI performance out-of-distribution than in-distribution because of distribution shift, we design experiments with different distribution types and investigate human performance for both in-distribution and out-of-distribution examples. Second, we develop novel interfaces to support interactive explanations so that humans can actively engage with AI assistance. Using in-person user study and large-scale randomized experiments across three tasks, we demonstrate a clear difference between in-distribution and out-of-distribution, and observe mixed results for interactive explanations: while interactive explanations improve human perception of AI assistance's usefulness, they may magnify human biases and lead to limited performance improvement. Overall, our work points out critical challenges and future directions towards complementary performance.


Expanding Explainability: Towards Social Transparency in AI systems

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

As AI-powered systems increasingly mediate consequential decision-making, their explainability is critical for end-users to take informed and accountable actions. Explanations in human-human interactions are socially-situated. AI systems are often socio-organizationally embedded. However, Explainable AI (XAI) approaches have been predominantly algorithm-centered. We take a developmental step towards socially-situated XAI by introducing and exploring Social Transparency (ST), a sociotechnically informed perspective that incorporates the socio-organizational context into explaining AI-mediated decision-making. To explore ST conceptually, we conducted interviews with 29 AI users and practitioners grounded in a speculative design scenario. We suggested constitutive design elements of ST and developed a conceptual framework to unpack ST's effect and implications at the technical, decision-making, and organizational level. The framework showcases how ST can potentially calibrate trust in AI, improve decision-making, facilitate organizational collective actions, and cultivate holistic explainability. Our work contributes to the discourse of Human-Centered XAI by expanding the design space of XAI.


L.A. students must get COVID-19 vaccine to return to campus, Beutner says

Los Angeles Times

Once COVID-19 vaccines are available to children, Los Angeles students will have to be immunized before they can return to campus, Supt. He did not, however, suggest that campuses remain closed until the vaccines are available. Instead, he said, the state should set the standards for reopening schools, explain the reasoning behind the standards, and then require campuses to open when these standards are achieved. A COVID-19 vaccine requirement would be "no different than students who are vaccinated for measles or mumps," Beutner said in a pre-recorded briefing. He also compared students, staff and others getting a COVID-19 vaccine to those who "are tested for tuberculosis before they come on campus. That's the best way we know to keep all on a campus safe."


Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI): An Engineering Perspective

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The remarkable advancements in Deep Learning (DL) algorithms have fueled enthusiasm for using Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies in almost every domain; however, the opaqueness of these algorithms put a question mark on their applications in safety-critical systems. In this regard, the `explainability' dimension is not only essential to both explain the inner workings of black-box algorithms, but it also adds accountability and transparency dimensions that are of prime importance for regulators, consumers, and service providers. eXplainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) is the set of techniques and methods to convert the so-called black-box AI algorithms to white-box algorithms, where the results achieved by these algorithms and the variables, parameters, and steps taken by the algorithm to reach the obtained results, are transparent and explainable. To complement the existing literature on XAI, in this paper, we take an `engineering' approach to illustrate the concepts of XAI. We discuss the stakeholders in XAI and describe the mathematical contours of XAI from engineering perspective. Then we take the autonomous car as a use-case and discuss the applications of XAI for its different components such as object detection, perception, control, action decision, and so on. This work is an exploratory study to identify new avenues of research in the field of XAI.