If you are looking for an answer to the question What is Artificial Intelligence? and you only have a minute, then here's the definition the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence offers on its home page: "the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines."
However, if you are fortunate enough to have more than a minute, then please get ready to embark upon an exciting journey exploring AI (but beware, it could last a lifetime) …
We introduce a large-volume box classification for binary prediction, which maintains a subset of weight vectors, and specifically axis-aligned boxes. Our learning algorithm seeks for a box of large volume that contains simple'' weight vectors which most of are accurate on the training set. Two versions of the learning process are cast as convex optimization problems, and it is shown how to solve them efficiently. The formulation yields a natural PAC-Bayesian performance bound and it is shown to minimize a quantity directly aligned with it. The algorithm outperforms SVM and the recently proposed AROW algorithm on a majority of $30$ NLP datasets and binarized USPS optical character recognition datasets.
Learning to rank has become an important research topic in machine learning. While most learning-to-rank methods learn the ranking function by minimizing the loss functions, it is the ranking measures (such as NDCG and MAP) that are used to evaluate the performance of the learned ranking function. In this work, we reveal the relationship between ranking measures and loss functions in learning-to-rank methods, such as Ranking SVM, RankBoost, RankNet, and ListMLE. We show that these loss functions are upper bounds of the measure-based ranking errors. As a result, the minimization of these loss functions will lead to the maximization of the ranking measures.
In many practical machine learning problems, the acquisition of labeled data is often expensive and/or time consuming. This motivates us to study a problem as follows: given a label budget, how to select data points to label such that the learning performance is optimized. We propose a selective labeling method by analyzing the generalization error of Laplacian regularized Least Squares (LapRLS). In particular, we derive a deterministic generalization error bound for LapRLS trained on subsampled data, and propose to select a subset of data points to label by minimizing this upper bound. Since the minimization is a combinational problem, we relax it into continuous domain and solve it by projected gradient descent.
Since the discovery of sophisticated fully polynomial randomized algorithms for a range of #P problems (Karzanov et al., 1991; Jerrum et al., 2001; Wilson, 2004), theoretical work on approximate inference in combinatorial spaces has focused on Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. Despite their strong theoretical guarantees, the slow running time of many of these randomized algorithms and the restrictive assumptions on the potentials have hindered the applicability of these algorithms to machine learning. Because of this, in applications to combinatorial spaces simple exact models are often preferred to more complex models that require approximate inference (Siepel et al., 2004). Variational inference would appear to provide an appealing alternative, given the success of variational methods for graphical models (Wainwright et al., 2008); unfortunately, however, it is not obvious how to develop variational approximations for combinatorial objects such as matchings, partial orders, plane partitions and sequence alignments. We propose a new framework that extends variational inference to a wide range of combinatorial spaces.
Recent approaches to collaborative filtering have concentrated on estimating an algebraic or statistical model, and using the model for predicting missing ratings. In this paper we observe that different models have relative advantages in different regions of the input space. This motivates our approach of using stagewise linear combinations of collaborative filtering algorithms, with non-constant combination coefficients based on kernel smoothing. The resulting stagewise model is computationally scalable and outperforms a wide selection of state-of-the-art collaborative filtering algorithms. Papers published at the Neural Information Processing Systems Conference.
Learning a measure of similarity between pairs of objects is a fundamental problem in machine learning. It stands in the core of classification methods like kernel machines, and is particularly useful for applications like searching for images that are similar to a given image or finding videos that are relevant to a given video. In these tasks, users look for objects that are not only visually similar but also semantically related to a given object. Unfortunately, current approaches for learning similarity may not scale to large datasets with high dimensionality, especially when imposing metric constraints on the learned similarity. We describe OASIS, a method for learning pairwise similarity that is fast and scales linearly with the number of objects and the number of non-zero features.
We propose a new approach to value function approximation which combines linear temporal difference reinforcement learning with subspace identification. In practical applications, reinforcement learning (RL) is complicated by the fact that state is either high-dimensional or partially observable. Therefore, RL methods are designed to work with features of state rather than state itself, and the success or failure of learning is often determined by the suitability of the selected features. By comparison, subspace identification (SSID) methods are designed to select a feature set which preserves as much information as possible about state. In this paper we connect the two approaches, looking at the problem of reinforcement learning with a large set of features, each of which may only be marginally useful for value function approximation.
Inferring key unobservable features of individuals is an important task in the applied sciences. In particular, an important source of data in fields such as marketing, social sciences and medicine is questionnaires: answers in such questionnaires are noisy measures of target unobserved features. While comprehensive surveys help to better estimate the latent variables of interest, aiming at a high number of questions comes at a price: refusal to participate in surveys can go up, as well as the rate of missing data; quality of answers can decline; costs associated with applying such questionnaires can also increase. In this paper, we cast the problem of refining existing models for questionnaire data as follows: solve a constrained optimization problem of preserving the maximum amount of information found in a latent variable model using only a subset of existing questions. The goal is to find an optimal subset of a given size.
We address the problem of learning classifiers for several related tasks that may differ in their joint distribution of input and output variables. For each task, small - possibly even empty - labeled samples and large unlabeled samples are available. While the unlabeled samples reflect the target distribution, the labeled samples may be biased. We derive a solution that produces resampling weights which match the pool of all examples to the target distribution of any given task. Our work is motivated by the problem of predicting sociodemographic features for users of web portals, based on the content which they have accessed.
Speech conveys different yet mixed information ranging from linguistic to speaker-specific components, and each of them should be exclusively used in a specific task. However, it is extremely difficult to extract a specific information component given the fact that nearly all existing acoustic representations carry all types of speech information. Thus, the use of the same representation in both speech and speaker recognition hinders a system from producing better performance due to interference of irrelevant information. In this paper, we present a deep neural architecture to extract speaker-specific information from MFCCs. As a result, a multi-objective loss function is proposed for learning speaker-specific characteristics and regularization via normalizing interference of non-speaker related information and avoiding information loss.