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How Eugenics Shaped Statistics - Issue 92: Frontiers

Nautilus

In early 2018, officials at University College London were shocked to learn that meetings organized by "race scientists" and neo-Nazis, called the London Conference on Intelligence, had been held at the college the previous four years. The existence of the conference was surprising, but the choice of location was not. UCL was an epicenter of the early 20th-century eugenics movement--a precursor to Nazi "racial hygiene" programs--due to its ties to Francis Galton, the father of eugenics, and his intellectual descendants and fellow eugenicists Karl Pearson and Ronald Fisher. In response to protests over the conference, UCL announced this June that it had stripped Galton's and Pearson's names from its buildings and classrooms. After similar outcries about eugenics, the Committee of Presidents of Statistical Societies renamed its annual Fisher Lecture, and the Society for the Study of Evolution did the same for its Fisher Prize. In science, these are the equivalents of toppling a Confederate statue and hurling it into the sea. Unlike tearing down monuments to white supremacy in the American South, purging statistics of the ghosts of its eugenicist past is not a straightforward proposition. In this version, it's as if Stonewall Jackson developed quantum physics. What we now understand as statistics comes largely from the work of Galton, Pearson, and Fisher, whose names appear in bread-and-butter terms like "Pearson correlation coefficient" and "Fisher information." In particular, the beleaguered concept of "statistical significance," for decades the measure of whether empirical research is publication-worthy, can be traced directly to the trio. Ideally, statisticians would like to divorce these tools from the lives and times of the people who created them. It would be convenient if statistics existed outside of history, but that's not the case.


Pseudo Labelling - A Guide To Semi-Supervised Learning

#artificialintelligence

There are 3 kinds of machine learning approaches- Supervised, Unsupervised, and Reinforcement Learning techniques. Supervised learning as we know is where data and labels are present. Unsupervised Learning is where only data and no labels are present. Reinforcement learning is where the agents learn from the actions taken to generate rewards. Imagine a situation where for training there is less number of labelled data and more unlabelled data.



How Artificial Intelligence is Changing the eLearning Environment

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Artificial intelligence (AI) is everywhere these days, making inanimate objects increasingly smart. It's designed by humans for humans, to enrich and facilitate our everyday lives. As a matter of fact, AI is now the brain behind your smartphone, car, music streaming service, banking app, freezer, and travel agency. If the main keyword for AI is "smart", then how come we don't talk more about this burgeoning technology in the context of knowledge, learning, and education? AI has everything we need to revolutionize the industry, enrich and facilitate the learning experience of students and adult learners, and boost the knowledge retention rates across the board.


Expert.ai makes AI simple

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Delivering enhanced data and analytical capabilities is an essential element of our journey, and the work completed in partnership with our Risk Consulting team and expert.ai



Use of Aggregated Data in Artificial Intelligence Solutions

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The use of aggregated data by technology service providers is quite common in today's landscape, and something that even traditionally cautious customers have become amenable to in the right circumstances and subject to proper limitations. As widespread adoption of artificial intelligence (AI) technology continues, providers and customers of AI solutions should carefully consider the proper scope of aggregated data use in the design and implementation of the AI solutions. We previously discussed recommendations for customers considering rights to use aggregated data in service relationships. In addition to those generally applicable considerations, the nature of AI technology presents some unique challenges relating to aggregated data usage. While service providers of traditional services and SaaS or other technology solutions often try to present aggregated data usage as a necessary and inherent component of their offerings, the reality is that the benefits provided on account of aggregated data are often relatively distinct from their core offerings.


Are Banking Chatbots Vulnerable to Attacks?

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The entire world is going cashless and banking activities and services seem to have moved online. Most customers perform their banking activities by adopting online services. Conversational AI is playing a significant role in attending to bank-related tasks and enabling the smooth functioning of the banks despite Covid constraints. Chatbot acts as a friendly banking assistant and enhances the overall financial services regime. Conversational AI in the financial sector usually deals with confidential user data including credit/ debit cards, bank accounts, sensitive personally identified information, and social security numbers.


Sony expects sensor business to not recover from Huawei sanctions until FY22

ZDNet

Sony on Wednesday announced it has cut the FY20 profit outlook for its sensor business by 38% to ¥81 billion due to the United States banning Sony from supplying chips to Huawei. In August, the United States issued sanctions that ban Huawei from procuring chips made by foreign manufacturers using US technology, like Sony. Due to this impact, CFO Hiroki Totoki anticipates the sensor business will not make a full recovery in profitability until the fiscal year ended March 2023. "We expect that it will take a long time for other customers to follow the trend to higher-functionality and larger die-sized smartphone cameras that the Chinese customer was leading. Thus, we expect the substantial recovery of profitability driven by these high value-added products to take place in the fiscal year ending March 31, 2023," Totoki said during the results presentation. Despite the hit to Sony's sensor business, the company has raised its annual profit outlook as it expects its gaming business to grow following the launch of the PlayStation 5 (PS5) next month.


New artificial intelligence feature to detect guns through surveillance video

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The company Omnilert is rolling out new technology that allows security cameras to identify a gun, and alert guards in the area of the potential threat.