In machine learning we often try to optimise a decision rule that would have worked well over a historical dataset; this is the so called empirical risk minimisation principle. In the context of learning from recommender system logs, applying this principle becomes a problem because we do not have available the reward of decisions we did not do. In order to handle this "bandit-feedback" setting, several Counterfactual Risk Minimisation (CRM) methods have been proposed in recent years, that attempt to estimate the performance of different policies on historical data. Through importance sampling and various variance reduction techniques, these methods allow more robust learning and inference than classical approaches. It is difficult to accurately estimate the performance of policies that frequently perform actions that were infrequently done in the past and a number of different types of estimators have been proposed. In this paper, we review several methods, based on different off-policy estimators, for learning from bandit feedback. We discuss key differences and commonalities among existing approaches, and compare their empirical performance on the RecoGym simulation environment. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first comparison study for bandit algorithms in a recommender system setting.
Over the last couple years, multiple changes within the technology space (most notably – artificial intelligence in hospitality) have brought forward a paradigm shift and disrupted a myriad of industries, leaving some players behind while simultaneously adding more value for the end users. The adoption of new emerging technologies has gone on to become quite the trend after receiving inspiration from successful use cases. In case of hotels, the real boost of artificial intelligence in hospitality sprung from the fact that it has the power to impact and transform the industry completely. Given the rising need for smart automation of existing processes, AI has entered the traditional hospitality landscape with a promise to enhance hotel reputation, drive revenue and take customer experience to the next level. Like many industrial systems, the world of hotels revolves around a handful of solutions all driven by intelligent chatbots and voice-enabled services.
A large amount of data accommodated in knowledge graphs (KG) is actually metric. For example, the Wikidata KG contains a plenitude of metric facts about geographic entities like cities, chemical compounds or celestial objects. In this paper, we propose a novel approach that transfers orometric (topographic) measures to bounded metric spaces. While these methods were originally designed to identify relevant mountain peaks on the surface of the earth, we demonstrate a notion to use them for metric data sets in general. Notably, metric sets of items inclosed in knowledge graphs. Based on this we present a method for identifying outstanding items using the transferred valuations functions 'isolation' and 'prominence'. Building up on this we imagine an item recommendation process. To demonstrate the relevance of the novel valuations for such processes we use item sets from the Wikidata knowledge graph. We then evaluate the usefulness of 'isolation' and 'prominence' empirically in a supervised machine learning setting. In particular, we find structurally relevant items in the geographic population distributions of Germany and France.
Interactive recommender systems that enable the interactions between users and the recommender system have attracted increasing research attentions. Previous methods mainly focus on optimizing recommendation accuracy. However, they usually ignore the diversity of the recommendation results, thus usually results in unsatisfying user experiences. In this paper, we propose a novel diversified recommendation model, named Diversified Contextual Combinatorial Bandit (DC$^2$B), for interactive recommendation with users' implicit feedback. Specifically, DC$^2$B employs determinantal point process in the recommendation procedure to promote diversity of the recommendation results. To learn the model parameters, a Thompson sampling-type algorithm based on variational Bayesian inference is proposed. In addition, theoretical regret analysis is also provided to guarantee the performance of DC$^2$B. Extensive experiments on real datasets are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
The success of recommender systems in modern online platforms is inseparable from the accurate capture of users' personal tastes. In everyday life, large amounts of user feedback data are created along with user-item online interactions in a variety of ways, such as browsing, purchasing, and sharing. These multiple types of user feedback provide us with tremendous opportunities to detect individuals' fine-grained preferences. Different from most existing recommender systems that rely on a single type of feedback, we advocate incorporating multiple types of user-item interactions for better recommendations. Based on the observation that the underlying spectrum of user preferences is reflected in various types of interactions with items and can be uncovered by latent relational learning in metric space, we propose a unified neural learning framework, named Multi-Relational Memory Network (MRMN). It can not only model fine-grained user-item relations but also enable us to discriminate between feedback types in terms of the strength and diversity of user preferences. Extensive experiments show that the proposed MRMN model outperforms competitive state-of-the-art algorithms in a wide range of scenarios, including e-commerce, local services, and job recommendations.
Recommender systems have become ubiquitous, transforming user interactions with products, services and content in a wide variety of domains. In content recommendation, recommenders generally surface relevant and/or novel personalized content based on learned models of user preferences (e.g., as in collaborative filtering [Breese et al., 1998, Konstan et al., 1997, Srebro et al., 2004, Salakhutdinov and Mnih, 2007]) or predictive models of user responses to specific recommendations. Well-known applications of recommender systems include video recommendations on YouTube [Covington et al., 2016], movie recommendations on Netflix [Gomez-Uribe and Hunt, 2016] and playlist construction on Spotify [Jacobson et al., 2016]. It is increasingly common to train deep neural networks (DNNs) [van den Oord et al., 2013, Wang et al., 2015, Covington et al., 2016, Cheng et al., 2016] to predict user responses (e.g., click-through rates, content engagement, ratings, likes) to generate, score and serve candidate recommendations. Practical recommender systems largely focus on myopic prediction--estimating a user's immediate response to a recommendation--without considering the long-term impact on subsequent user behavior. This can be limiting: modeling a recommendation's stochastic impact on the future affords opportunities to trade off user engagement in the near-term for longer-term benefit (e.g., by probing a user's interests, or improving satisfaction).
Martindale, Nathan (Tennessee Technological University) | Gannod, Gerald C. (Tennessee Technological University) | Abbott, Katherine M. (Miami University) | Haitsma, Kimberly Van (Pennsylvania State University)
The Preferences for Everyday Living Inventory (PELI) is a 72-question instrument used for helping nursing homes assess person-centered care. In particular, the approach allows residents to express their preferences for both care and activities in order to provide direct care workers with insights on how to best provide a high-quality living experience. Among the challenges of using the PELI is its length: 72 questions give rise to issues of survey fatigue while also creating a workflow bottleneck for those providing care. In this paper we explore and evaluate the use of three different recom-mender strategies that we have applied to the PELI. In particular, we present the use of both rule-based and neighborhood-based collaborative filtering in order to make recommendations on which preference questions to present to a resident. We illustrate the approaches by providing a domain-specific example, and then compare the approaches across a number of performance and quality metrics.
Recommending appropriate items to users is crucial in many e-commerce platforms that contain implicit data as users' browsing, purchasing and streaming history. One common approach consists in selecting the N most relevant items to each user, for a given N, which is called top-N recommendation. To do so, recommender systems rely on various kinds of information, like item and user features, past interest of users for items, browsing history and trust between users. However, they often use only one or two such pieces of information, which limits their performance. In this paper, we design and implement GraFC2T2, a general graph-based framework to easily combine and compare various kinds of side information for top-N recommendation. It encodes content-based features, temporal and trust information into a complex graph, and uses personalized PageRank on this graph to perform recommendation. We conduct experiments on Epinions and Ciao datasets, and compare obtained performances using F1-score, Hit ratio and MAP evaluation metrics, to systems based on matrix factorization and deep learning. This shows that our framework is convenient for such explorations, and that combining different kinds of information indeed improves recommendation in general.
Recommender systems are personalized information access applications; they are ubiquitous in today's online environment, and effective at finding items that meet user needs and tastes. As the reach of recommender systems has extended, it has become apparent that the single-minded focus on the user common to academic research has obscured other important aspects of recommendation outcomes. Properties such as fairness, balance, profitability, and reciprocity are not captured by typical metrics for recommender system evaluation. The concept of multistakeholder recommendation has emerged as a unifying framework for describing and understanding recommendation settings where the end user is not the sole focus. This article describes the origins of multistakeholder recommendation, and the landscape of system designs. It provides illustrative examples of current research, as well as outlining open questions and research directions for the field.