If you are looking for an answer to the question What is Artificial Intelligence? and you only have a minute, then here's the definition the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence offers on its home page: "the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines."
However, if you are fortunate enough to have more than a minute, then please get ready to embark upon an exciting journey exploring AI (but beware, it could last a lifetime) …
What exactly is h (sometimes called s) in the recurrence relation representing an RNN: (leaving off the nonlinearity)? The variable name h is typically used because it represents the hidden state of the RNN. An RNN takes a variable-length input record of symbols (e.g., stock price sequence, document, sentence, or word) and generates a fixed-length vector in high dimensional space, called an embedding, that somehow meaningfully represents or encodes the input record. The vector is only associated with a single input record and is only meaningful in the context of a classification or regression problem; the RNN is just a component of a surrounding model. For example, the h vector is often passed through a final linear layer V (multiclass logistic regressor) to get model predictions.
Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN) are a class of Artificial Neural Networks that can process a sequence of inputs in deep learning and retain its state while processing the next sequence of inputs. Traditional neural networks will process an input and move onto the next one disregarding its sequence. Data such as time series have a sequential order that needs to be followed in order to understand. Traditional feed-forward networks cannot comprehend this as each input is assumed to be independent of each other whereas in a time series setting each input is dependent on the previous input. In Illustration 1 we see that the neural network (hidden state) A takes an xt and outputs a value ht.
I've never liked high school English class. Maybe it's the fact that assignments are always super subjective. Maybe it's because the books that we're forced to read are long and boring. Maybe it's because Shakespeare is literally written in another language. What ends up happening because I don't really like English class is that I stop paying attention to what my teacher is saying and I don't read the books we're supposed to read.
Humans have a lot of senses, and yet our sensory experiences are typically dominated by vision. With that in mind, perhaps it is unsurprising that the vanguard of modern machine learning has been led by computer vision tasks. Likewise, when humans want to communicate or receive information, the most ubiquitous and natural avenue they use is language. Language can be conveyed by spoken and written words, gestures, or some combination of modalities, but for the purposes of this article, we'll focus on the written word (although many of the lessons here overlap with verbal speech as well). Over the years we've seen the field of natural language processing (aka NLP, not to be confused with that NLP) with deep neural networks follow closely on the heels of progress in deep learning for computer vision.
As you read this article, you understand each word based on your understanding of previous words. You don't throw everything away and start thinking from scratch again. We have already seen in Introduction to Artificial Neural Networks(ANN) how ANN can be used for regression and classification tasks, and in Introduction to Convolutional Neural Networks(CNN) how CNN can be used for image recognition, segmentation or object detection and computer-vision related tasks. But what if we have sequential data? Before we dig into details of Recurrent Neural networks, if you are a beginner I suggest you read below two articles to get a basic understanding of neural networks.
Since the dawn of Sci-Fi cinema, society has been fascinated with Artificial Intelligence. Whenever we hear the term "AI", our first thought is typically one of a futuristic robot from movies such as Terminator, The Matrix and I, Robot. Although we might still be a few years away from robots that can think for themselves, there have been significant developments in the fields of machine learning and natural language understanding over the past few years. Applications such as Personal Assistants (Siri/Alexa), chatbots and Question-Answering bots are truly revolutionizing the way we interface with machines and go about our daily lives. Natural Language Understanding (NLU) and Natural Language Generation (NLG) are among the fastest growing applications of AI due to the increasing need to understand and derive meaning from language, with its numerous ambiguities and varied structure. According to Gartner, "By 2019, natural-language generation will be a standard feature of 90 percent of modern BI and Analytics platforms".
Writing the A gentle introduction to the tiresome part of understanding RNN Article Series on recurrent neural network (RNN) is nothing like a creative or ingenious idea. It is quite an ordinary topic. But still I am going to write my own new article on this ordinary topic because I have been frustrated by lack of sufficient explanations on RNN for slow learners like me. I think many of readers of articles on this website at least know that RNN is a type of neural network used for AI tasks, such as time series prediction, machine translation, and voice recognition. But if you do not understand how RNNs work, especially during its back propagation, this blog series is for you.
For example, in machine translation, the input is an English sentence, and the output is the French translation. The Encoder will unroll each word in sequence and forms a fixed-length vector representation of the input English sentence. Then, the Decode will take the fixed-length vector representation as input, and produce each French word one after another, forming the translated English sentence. However, RNN models have some problems, they are slow to train, and they can't deal with long sequences. The input data needs to be processed sequentially one after the other.
Lecture 8 covers traditional language models, RNNs, and RNN language models. Also reviewed are important training problems and tricks, RNNs for other sequence tasks, and bidirectional and deep RNNs. This lecture series provides a thorough introduction to the cutting-edge research in deep learning applied to NLP, an approach that has recently obtained very high performance across many different NLP tasks including question answering and machine translation. It emphasizes how to implement, train, debug, visualize, and design neural network models, covering the main technologies of word vectors, feed-forward models, recurrent neural networks, recursive neural networks, convolutional neural networks, and recent models involving a memory component. For additional learning opportunities please visit: http://stanfordonline.stanford.edu/