Principal Component Analysis

Principal Component Analysis for Machine Learning - Translucent


Analyzing large data sets comes with multiple challenges. One of the challenges is to get data in the right structure for the analysis. Without preprocessing the data, your algorithms might have difficult time converging and/or take a long time execute. One of the techniques that we used at TCinc is Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The official definition of PCA from Wikipediai is "Principal component analysis (PCA) is a statistical procedure that uses orthogonal transformation to convert a set of observations of possibly correlated variables into a set of values of linearly uncorrelated variables called principal components."

Spherical Principal Component Analysis Machine Learning

In many real-world applications such as text categorization and face recognition, the dimensions of data are usually very high. Dealing with high-dimensional data is computationally expensive while noise or outliers in the data can increase dramatically as the dimension increases. Dimension reduction is one of the most important and effective methods to handle high dimensional data [4, 17, 20]. Among the dimension reduction methods, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is one of the most widely used methods due to its simplicity and effectiveness. PCA is a statistical procedure that uses an orthogonal transformation to convert a set of correlated variables into a set of linearly uncorrelated principal directions. Usually the number of principal directions is less than or equal to the number of original variables. This transformation is defined in such a way that the first principal direction has the largest possible variance (that is, accounts for as much of the variability in the data as possible), and each succeeding direction has the highest variance under the constraint that it is orthogonal to the preceding directions. The resulting vectors are an uncorrelated orthogonal basis set. When data points lie in a low-dimensional manifold and the manifold is linear or nearly-linear, the low-dimensional structure of data can be effectively captured by a linear subspace spanned by the principal PCA directions.

Logistic principal component analysis via non-convex singular value thresholding Machine Learning

Multivariate binary data is becoming abundant in current biological research. Logistic principal component analysis (PCA) is one of the commonly used tools to explore the relationships inside a multivariate binary data set by exploiting the underlying low rank structure. We re-expressed the logistic PCA model based on the latent variable interpretation of the generalized linear model on binary data. The multivariate binary data set is assumed to be the sign observation of an unobserved quantitative data set, on which a low rank structure is assumed to exist. However, the standard logistic PCA model (using exact low rank constraint) is prone to overfitting, which could lead to divergence of some estimated parameters towards infinity. We propose to fit a logistic PCA model through non-convex singular value thresholding to alleviate the overfitting issue. An efficient Majorization-Minimization algorithm is implemented to fit the model and a missing value based cross validation (CV) procedure is introduced for the model selection. Our experiments on realistic simulations of imbalanced binary data and low signal to noise ratio show that the CV error based model selection procedure is successful in selecting the proposed model. Furthermore, the selected model demonstrates superior performance in recovering the underlying low rank structure compared to models with convex nuclear norm penalty and exact low rank constraint. A binary copy number aberration data set is used to illustrate the proposed methodology in practice.

Incremental Principal Component Analysis Exact implementation and continuity corrections Machine Learning

This paper describes some applications of an incremental implementation of the principal component analysis (PCA). The algorithm updates the transformation coefficients matrix on-line for each new sample, without the need to keep all the samples in memory. The algorithm is formally equivalent to the usual batch version, in the sense that given a sample set the transformation coefficients at the end of the process are the same. The implications of applying the PCA in real time are discussed with the help of data analysis examples. In particular we focus on the problem of the continuity of the PCs during an on-line analysis.

Online Adaptive Principal Component Analysis and Its extensions Machine Learning

We propose algorithms for online principal component analysis (PCA) and variance minimization for adaptive settings. Previous literature has focused on upper bounding the static adversarial regret, whose comparator is the optimal fixed action in hindsight. However, static regret is not an appropriate metric when the underlying environment is changing. Instead, we adopt the adaptive regret metric from the previous literature and propose online adaptive algorithms for PCA and variance minimization, that have sub-linear adaptive regret guarantees. We demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally that the proposed algorithms can adapt to the changing environments.

Principal Component Analysis


Big Data is increasingly becoming the norm and affecting many domains. When there's lots of data involving multiple variables, the work of a data scientist gets difficult. Algorithms will also take longer to complete. Wouldn't it be sensible to identify and consider only those variables that influence the most and discard others? This in turn leads to compression since the less important information are discarded.

Stochastic Approximation Algorithms for Principal Component Analysis Machine Learning

Principal Component Analysis is a novel way of of dimensionality reduction. This problem essentially boils down to finding the top k eigen vectors of the data covariance matrix. A considerable amount of literature is found on algorithms meant to do so such as an online method be Warmuth and Kuzmin, Matrix Stochastic Gradient by Arora, Oja's method and many others. In this paper we see some of these stochastic approaches to the PCA optimization problem and comment on their convergence and runtime to obtain an epsilon sub-optimal solution. We revisit convex relaxation based methods for stochastic optimization of principal component analysis. While methods that directly solve the non convex problem have been shown to be optimal in terms of statistical and computational efficiency, the methods based on convex relaxation have been shown to enjoy comparable, or even superior, empirical performance. This motivates the need for a deeper formal understanding of the latter.

The Stochastic Complexity of Principal Component Analysis Machine Learning

PCA (principal component analysis) and its variants are ubiquitous techniques for matrix dimension reduction and reduced-dimension latent-factor extraction. For an arbitrary matrix, they cannot, on their own, determine the size of the reduced dimension, but rather must be given this as an input. NML (normalized maximum likelihood) is a universal implementation of the Minimal Description Length principle, which gives an objective compression-based criterion for model selection. This work applies NML to PCA. A direct attempt to do so would involve the distributions of singular values of random matrices, which is difficult. A reduction to linear regression with a noisy unitary covariate matrix, however, allows finding closed-form bounds on the NML of PCA.

Principal Component Analysis: Your Tutorial and Code


Your data is the life-giving fuel to your Machine Learning model. There are always many ML techniques to choose from and apply to a particular problem, but without a lot of good data you won't get very far. Data is often the driver behind most of your performance gains in a Machine Learning application. Sometimes that data can be complicated. You have so much of it that it may be challenging to understand what it all means and which parts are actually important.

Distributionally Robust Reduced Rank Regression and Principal Component Analysis in High Dimensions Machine Learning

We propose robust sparse reduced rank regression and robust sparse principal component analysis for analyzing large and complex high-dimensional data with heavy-tailed random noise. The proposed methods are based on convex relaxations of rank-and sparsity-constrained non-convex optimization problems, which are solved using the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) algorithm. For robust sparse reduced rank regression, we establish non-asymptotic estimation error bounds under both Frobenius and nuclear norms, while existing results focus mostly on rank-selection and prediction consistency. Our theoretical results quantify the tradeoff between heavy-tailedness of the random noise and statistical bias. For random noise with bounded $(1+\delta)$th moment with $\delta \in (0,1)$, the rate of convergence is a function of $\delta$, and is slower than the sub-Gaussian-type deviation bounds; for random noise with bounded second moment, we recover the results obtained under sub-Gaussian noise. Furthermore, the transition between the two regimes is smooth. For robust sparse principal component analysis, we propose to truncate the observed data, and show that this truncation will lead to consistent estimation of the eigenvectors. We then establish theoretical results similar to those of robust sparse reduced rank regression. We illustrate the performance of these methods via extensive numerical studies and two real data applications.