Anomaly Detection with Score functions based on Nearest Neighbor Graphs

Neural Information Processing Systems

We propose a novel non-parametric adaptive anomaly detection algorithm for high dimensional data based on score functions derived from nearest neighbor graphs on n-point nominal data. Anomalies are declared whenever the score of a test sample falls below q, which is supposed to be the desired false alarm level. The resulting anomaly detector is shown to be asymptotically optimal in that it is uniformly most powerful for the specified false alarm level, q, for the case when the anomaly density is a mixture of the nominal and a known density. Our algorithm is computationally efficient, being linear in dimension and quadratic in data size. It does not require choosing complicated tuning parameters or function approximation classes and it can adapt to local structure such as local change in dimensionality.


A Stochastic Gradient Method with an Exponential Convergence _Rate for Finite Training Sets

Neural Information Processing Systems

We propose a new stochastic gradient method for optimizing the sum of a finite set of smooth functions, where the sum is strongly convex. While standard stochastic gradient methods converge at sublinear rates for this problem, the proposed method incorporates a memory of previous gradient values in order to achieve a linear convergence rate. In a machine learning context, numerical experiments indicate that the new algorithm can dramatically outperform standard algorithms, both in terms of optimizing the training error and reducing the test error quickly. Papers published at the Neural Information Processing Systems Conference.


Neural Implementation of Hierarchical Bayesian Inference by Importance Sampling

Neural Information Processing Systems

The goal of perception is to infer the hidden states in the hierarchical process by which sensory data are generated. Human behavior is consistent with the optimal statistical solution to this problem in many tasks, including cue combination and orientation detection. Understanding the neural mechanisms underlying this behavior is of particular importance, since probabilistic computations are notoriously challenging. Here we propose a simple mechanism for Bayesian inference which involves averaging over a few feature detection neurons which fire at a rate determined by their similarity to a sensory stimulus. This mechanism is based on a Monte Carlo method known as importance sampling, commonly used in computer science and statistics.


Gaussian process regression with Student-t likelihood

Neural Information Processing Systems

In the Gaussian process regression the observation model is commonly assumed to be Gaussian, which is convenient in computational perspective. However, the drawback is that the predictive accuracy of the model can be significantly compromised if the observations are contaminated by outliers. A robust observation model, such as the Student-t distribution, reduces the influence of outlying observations and improves the predictions. The problem, however, is the analytically intractable inference. In this work, we discuss the properties of a Gaussian process regression model with the Student-t likelihood and utilize the Laplace approximation for approximate inference.


Cyclizing Clusters via Zeta Function of a Graph

Neural Information Processing Systems

Detecting underlying clusters from large-scale data plays a central role in machine learning research. In this paper, we attempt to tackle clustering problems for complex data of multiple distributions and large multi-scales. To this end, we develop an algorithm named Zeta $l$-links, or Zell which consists of two parts: Zeta merging with a similarity graph and an initial set of small clusters derived from local $l$-links of the graph. More specifically, we propose to structurize a cluster using cycles in the associated subgraph. A mathematical tool, Zeta function of a graph, is introduced for the integration of all cycles, leading to a structural descriptor of the cluster in determinantal form.


Progressive mixture rules are deviation suboptimal

Neural Information Processing Systems

We consider the learning task consisting in predicting as well as the best function in a finite reference set G up to the smallest possible additive term. If R(g) denotes the generalization error of a prediction function g, under reasonable assumptions on the loss function (typically satisfied by the least square loss when the output is bounded), it is known that the progressive mixture rule g_n satisfies E R(g_n) min_{g in G} R(g) Cst (log G)/n where n denotes the size of the training set, E denotes the expectation wrt the training set distribution. This work shows that, surprisingly, for appropriate reference sets G, the deviation convergence rate of the progressive mixture rule is only no better than Cst / sqrt{n}, and not the expected Cst / n. It also provides an algorithm which does not suffer from this drawback. Papers published at the Neural Information Processing Systems Conference.


An Alternative to Low-level-Sychrony-Based Methods for Speech Detection

Neural Information Processing Systems

Determining whether someone is talking has applications in many areas such as speech recognition, speaker diarization, social robotics, facial expression recognition, and human computer interaction. One popular approach to this problem is audio-visual synchrony detection. A candidate speaker is deemed to be talking if the visual signal around that speaker correlates with the auditory signal. Here we show that with the proper visual features (in this case movements of various facial muscle groups), a very accurate detector of speech can be created that does not use the audio signal at all. Further we show that this person independent visual-only detector can be used to train very accurate audio-based person dependent voice models.


Exploiting weakly-labeled Web images to improve object classification: a domain adaptation approach

Neural Information Processing Systems

Most current image categorization methods require large collections of manually annotated training examples to learn accurate visual recognition models. The time-consuming human labeling effort effectively limits these approaches to recognition problems involving a small number of different object classes. In order to address this shortcoming, in recent years several authors have proposed to learn object classifiers from weakly-labeled Internet images, such as photos retrieved by keyword-based image search engines. While this strategy eliminates the need for human supervision, the recognition accuracies of these methods are considerably lower than those obtained with fully-supervised approaches, because of the noisy nature of the labels associated to Web data. In this paper we investigate and compare methods that learn image classifiers by combining very few manually annotated examples (e.g., 1-10 images per class) and a large number of weakly-labeled Web photos retrieved using keyword-based image search.


Layer-wise analysis of deep networks with Gaussian kernels

Neural Information Processing Systems

Deep networks can potentially express a learning problem more efficiently than local learning machines. While deep networks outperform local learning machines on some problems, it is still unclear how their nice representation emerges from their complex structure. We present an analysis based on Gaussian kernels that measures how the representation of the learning problem evolves layer after layer as the deep network builds higher-level abstract representations of the input. We use this analysis to show empirically that deep networks build progressively better representations of the learning problem and that the best representations are obtained when the deep network discriminates only in the last layers. Papers published at the Neural Information Processing Systems Conference.