If you are looking for an answer to the question What is Artificial Intelligence? and you only have a minute, then here's the definition the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence offers on its home page: "the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines."
However, if you are fortunate enough to have more than a minute, then please get ready to embark upon an exciting journey exploring AI (but beware, it could last a lifetime) …
NAGOYA – Toyota Motor Corp. on Tuesday began construction of a smart city at the foot of Mount Fuji in central Japan as a testing ground for new technologies including robotics and artificial intelligence. About 360 people including Toyota employees will initially move to the so-called Woven City to be built at the 70.8-hectare former Toyota factory site in Susono, Shizuoka Prefecture. It will be powered by electricity from fuel cells, which derive power from a hydrogen-oxygen reaction, in addition to solar panels. Toyota describes the city -- run with partner companies such as telecommunications giant Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corp. -- as a "living laboratory" where it will test autonomous vehicles, robots and artificial intelligence in a real-world environment. The automaker has commissioned Danish architect Bjarke Ingels, who designed the 2 World Trade Center in New York City and Google's headquarters in California, to plan the layout of the city.
"The Line" is a 170 kilometer-long city on the Red Sea in northwestern Saudi Arabia that is currently being built from the ground up in the desert. Picture this: you land from your flight, walk through the airport undisturbed, then jump on a high-speed underground transit line that within less than 20 minutes takes you to the city center. As you hop off, forget about pulling your phone out to search your way from the station to the hotel: a small autonomous shuttle is awaiting you at the exit, and it already knows where you're going. After a short ride – nothing here is further than a few hundred meters away – through a city that has traded cars and roads for open piazzas and luxuriant green spaces, the shuttle drops you off at your hotel. Don't bother checking in; a facial recognition system has already pinned you down. You walk directly to your room, press your fingertips next to the handle to authenticate, and sigh comfortably as the doors open.
Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman is promising to build a network of smart cities that won't have any cars or roads. It's called The Line, due to its arrangement of "hyper-connected future communities," and will form part of NEOM, a $500 billion project announced in October 2017. According to the prince, the development will offer "ultra-high-speed transit," autonomous vehicles and an urban layout that ensures basic facilities, such as schools and medical clinics, are never more than a five-minute walk away. "It is expected no journey will be longer than 20 minutes," the project's organizers claimed in a press release today. One million people are supposed to live inside The Line.
We know that Cities need to increase the efficiency in which they operate and use their resources. Major efficiency improvements can be achieved by horizontally interconnecting individual systems such as electricity, water, sanitation and waste management, transportation, security, environmental monitoring, or weather intelligence. Researchers predict that by 2050, 66% of the world's population is expected to live in urban areas. The challenge, here, will be to supply these populations with all these basic resources while ensuring overall economic, social, and environmental sustainability. Digital Transformation with its intent of making the citizen's lives better, is accelerating the process of transformation of urban centers to the smart cities.
Cisco Systems Inc. is pulling the plug on a flagship effort to help digitize the modern city, the latest example of a big tech company struggling to enter a new market. The setback comes as the pandemic has weighed on Cisco's core business of supplying networking equipment and has limited the ability of local governments to finance such projects. City planners and local governments for years have been preparing for a future where technology remakes the urban landscape, with features such as self-driving cars, smart lighting and connected alarms to help safeguard residents. Communications using 5G technology blanketing the city would allow widespread adoption of smart devices. For Cisco, best known for providing routers and other networking gear to corporate customers, that vision promised a budding new market.
Ontology, as a discipline of philosophy, explains the nature of existence and has its roots in Aristotle and Plato studies on "metaphysics" (Welty and Guarino, 2001). However, the word ontology originated from two Greek words: ontos (being) and logos (word), and conceived for the first time during the Sixteen century by German philosophers (Welty and Guarino, 2001). From then till the mid-twentieth, ontology evolved mainly as a branch of philosophy. However, with the advent of Artificial Intelligence since the 1950s, researchers perceived the necessity of ontology to describe a new world of intelligent systems (Welty and Guarino, 2001). Moreover, with the development of the World Wide Web in the 1990s, ontology development got to be common among different domain specialists to define and share the concepts and entities in their fields on the Internet (Noy et al., 2001). During the last three decades, ontology development studies have evolved and shifted from theoretical issues of ontology to practical implications of the use of ontology in real-world, large-scale applications (Noy et al., 2001). Nowadays, ontology development focuses mainly on defining machine interpretable concepts and their relationships in a domain. However, ontology development also pursues other goals, such as providing a common conceptualization of the domain on which different experts agree, (Métral and Cutting-Decelle, 2011) and enable them to reuse the domain knowledge (Noy et al., 2001). It also enables researchers to easily analyze the domain knowledge and eloquently express the domain assumptions.
As we make tremendous advances in machine learning and artificial intelligence technosciences, there is a renewed understanding in the AI community that we must ensure that humans being are at the center of our deliberations so that we don't end in technology-induced dystopias. As strongly argued by Green in his book Smart Enough City, the incorporation of technology in city environs does not automatically translate into prosperity, wellbeing, urban livability, or social justice. There is a great need to deliberate on the future of the cities worth living and designing. There are philosophical and ethical questions involved along with various challenges that relate to the security, safety, and interpretability of AI algorithms that will form the technological bedrock of future cities. Several research institutes on human centered AI have been established at top international universities. Globally there are calls for technology to be made more humane and human-compatible. For example, Stuart Russell has a book called Human Compatible AI. The Center for Humane Technology advocates for regulators and technology companies to avoid business models and product features that contribute to social problems such as extremism, polarization, misinformation, and Internet addiction. In this paper, we analyze and explore key challenges including security, robustness, interpretability, and ethical challenges to a successful deployment of AI or ML in human-centric applications, with a particular emphasis on the convergence of these challenges. We provide a detailed review of existing literature on these key challenges and analyze how one of these challenges may lead to others or help in solving other challenges. The paper also advises on the current limitations, pitfalls, and future directions of research in these domains, and how it can fill the current gaps and lead to better solutions.
If we look back on the past five years, we would find many breath-taking tech advancements. Smart cities, micro-drones, Internet of Things, connected logistics, artificial intelligence, etc. have put us on a platform where pride comes naturally. We can talk about the coronavirus pandemic and lockdowns all we want. However, we shouldn't forget one thing. Technology has empowered us with numerous advantages to fight this crisis.
Dec 3 (Thomson Reuters Foundation) - From robots delivering coffee to office chairs rearranging themselves after a meeting, a smart city project in China aims to put artificial intelligence in charge, its creators told a conference this week - raising some eyebrows. Danish architecture firm BIG and Chinese tech company Terminus discussed plans to build an AI-run campus-style development in the southwestern Chinese city of Chongqing during an online panel at Web Summit, a global tech conference. The project named Cloud Valley, plans to use sensors and wifi-connected devices to gather data on everything from weather and pollution to people's eating habits to automatically meet residents' needs, said Terminus founder Victor Ai. "It's almost coming back to this idea of living in a village where, when you show up, even though it's the first time you're there, the bar tender knows your favourite drink," said BIG founding partner Bjarke Ingels. "When our environment becomes sensing and sentient ... we can really open up that kind of seamlessness because the AI can recognise people coming. So it can open the door, so they don't have to look for their key cards."