If you are looking for an answer to the question What is Artificial Intelligence? and you only have a minute, then here's the definition the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence offers on its home page: "the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines."
However, if you are fortunate enough to have more than a minute, then please get ready to embark upon an exciting journey exploring AI (but beware, it could last a lifetime) …
Benjamin Frisch: OK, let's maybe start with some quick background: What's your relationship to the Mario universe? I've played pretty much all of the mainline Mario games, with the exception of 3D World, which I was very excited to finally get to play, since I sat out on Nintendo's previous console, the Wii U. Karen Han: I've always lived in a Nintendo household, but I admittedly haven't played that many of the big Mario games--most of my Mario experience comes from the Mario Party and Mario Kart series, though I feel like no one who was around when Super Mario Sunshine came out [in 2002 on GameCube] could escape that game completely. I also played through Super Mario Odyssey when it came out on the Switch, but I'd say that's the only Mario game I've ever actually completed. Evan Urquhart: The first video game I really got into as a child was Super Mario Bros. 3, and one of my all-time favorite games is Super Mario 64, so I have a deep connection to this series. I've played most of the 2D and 3D games, but like others, I skipped the Wii U entry, so I'm new to 3D World.
There were two major console launches--the PlayStation 5 and the Xbox Series X--as well as big titles like Assassin's Creed Valhalla, the Final Fantasy VII remake, and Cyberpunk 2077 (we said big, not good!). Slate staffers recently convened to discuss what they played to pass the time in lockdown, what games surprised and disappointed them, and how many hours they honestly spent in Animal Crossing. Karen Han: I don't think it's out of line for me to say that this was the biggest year for games in recent memory, not just because of new console launches but because I feel like, thanks to the pandemic, we had a lot more time on our hands to be playing games. Is that fair to say, at least for this group? Daniel Schroeder: I think you're spot on. Before this year I never had chunks of time big enough to descend into and obsess over a new game like I like to. This year I was able to sort of keep up!
"The funny thing about life is that it's temporary; that is to say, temporary in the'temporal' sense of the word, meaning that all living things and all that we do are subject to the precepts and effects of time." Many organisms perform best at certain hours of the day. The slug species Arion subfuscus, living in almost total darkness, knowing nothing about the Gregorian calendar, lays its eggs between the last week of August and the first week of September.1 Bees forage for nectar, knowing the best times to visit the best fields and the exact timing of nectar secretions for individual species of flowers. In the mid-20th century, the Austrian Nobel laureate Karl von Frisch provided enormous insights on honeybee communication and foraging time. He discovered that bees have internal clocks that tell them not only where the nectar is to be found but also precisely when that food will be ready. "I know of no other living creature," he wrote in his book on bee language, "that learns so easily as the bee when, according to its'internal clock,' to come to the table."2 Even without a light clue, the plants were able to tell time.
The CP 2002 paper entitled "Breaking Row and Column Symmetries in Matrix Models" by Flener et al.  describes some of the first work for identifying and analyzing row and column symmetry in mat rix models and for efficiently and effectively dealing with such symmetry u sing static symmetry-breaking ordering constraints. This commentary provides a retrospective on that work and highlights some of the subsequent work on the topic.
Elliot Soloway is an Associate Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI. He directs the "Highly-Interactive Computing Environments" project located in the AI Lab. William J. Clancey is a Senior Research Scientist at the Institute for Research on Learning, an independent, not-for-profit organization. His current interests are relating AI programming to traditional scientific modeling, studying computer systems in the workplace, and reexamining the relation of cognitive science theories to the processes of human memory and learning. Kurt VanLehn is an associate professor in the computer science department and a senior scientist at the Learning Research and Development Center, both at the University of Pittsburgh.
Akgun, Ozgur (University of St. Andrews) | Miguel, Ian (University of St. Andrews) | Jefferson, Chris (University of St. Andrews) | Frisch, Alan M. (University of York) | Hnich, Brahim (Izmir University of Economics)
In constraint solving, a critical bottleneck is the formulation of aneffective constraint model of an input problem. The Conjure system describedin this paper, a substantial step forward over prototype versions of Conjurepreviously reported, makes a valuable contribution to the automation ofconstraint modelling by automatically producing constraint models from theirspecifications in the abstract constraint specification language Essence. Aset of rules is used to refine an abstract specification into a concreteconstraint model. We demonstrate that this set of rules is readily extensibleto increase the space of possible constraint models Conjure can produce. Ourempirical results confirm that Conjure can reproduce successfully the kernelsof the constraint models of 32 benchmark problems found in the literature.