"Many researchers … speculate that the information-processing abilities of biological neural systems must follow from highly parallel processes operating on representations that are distributed over many neurons. [Artificial neural networks] capture this kind of highly parallel computation based on distributed representations"
– from Machine Learning (Section 4.1.1; page 82) by Tom M. Mitchell, McGraw Hill Companies, Inc. (1997).
A good deep learning model has a carefully carved architecture. It needs enormous training data, effective hardware, skilled developers, and a vast amount of time to train and hyper-tune the model to achieve satisfactory performance. Therefore, building a deep learning model from scratch and training is practically impossible for every deep learning task. Here comes the power of Transfer Learning. Transfer Learning is the approach of making use of an already trained model for a related task.
Machine learning has advanced from the age of science fiction to a major component of modern enterprises, especially as businesses across almost all sectors use various machine learning technologies. As an example, the healthcare industry is utilizing machine learning business applications to achieve more accurate diagnoses and provide better treatment to their patients. Retailers also use machine learning to send the right goods and products to the right stores before it is out of stock. Medical researchers are also not left out when it comes to using machine learning as many introduce newer and more effective medicines with the help of this technology. Many use cases are emerging from all sectors as machine learning is being implemented in logistics, manufacturing, hospitality, travel and tourism, energy, and utilities.
Welcome to AI book reviews, a series of posts that explore the latest literature on artificial intelligence. Since the early years of artificial intelligence, scientists have dreamed of creating computers that can "see" the world. As vision plays a key role in many things we do every day, cracking the code of computer vision seemed to be one of the major steps toward developing artificial general intelligence. But like many other goals in AI, computer vision has proven to be easier said than done. In 1966, scientists at MIT launched "The Summer Vision Project," a two-month effort to create a computer system that could identify objects and background areas in images.
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AI and machine learning systems have become increasingly competent in recent years, capable of not just understanding the written word but writing it as well. But while these artificial intelligences have nearly mastered the English language, they have yet to become fluent in the language of computers -- that is, until now. IBM announced during its Think 2021 conference on Monday that its researchers have crafted a Rosetta Stone for programming code. Over the past decade, advancements in AI have mainly been "driven by deep neural networks, and even that, it was driven by three major factors: data with the availability of large data sets for training, innovations in new algorithms, and the massive acceleration of faster and faster compute hardware driven by GPUs," Ruchir Puri, IBM Fellow and Chief Scientist at IBM Research, said during his Think 2021 presentation, likening the new data set to the venerated ImageNet, which has spawned the recent computer vision land rush. "Software is eating the world," Marc Andreessen wrote in 2011.
Embedded vision technologies are giving machines the power of sight, but today's systems still fall short of understanding all the nuances of an image. An approach used for natural language processing could address that. Attention-based neural networks, particularly transformer networks, have revolutionized natural language processing (NLP), giving machines a better understanding of language than ever before. This technique, which is designed to mimic cognitive processes by giving an artificial neural network an idea of history or context, has produced much more sophisticated AI agents than older approaches that also employ memory, such as long short-term memory (LSTM) and recurrent neural networks (RNNs). NLP now has a deeper level of understanding of the questions or prompts it is fed and can create long pieces of text in response that are often indistinguishable from what a human might write.
It is a class of machine learning where theories of the subject aren't strongly established and views quickly change almost on daily basis. "I think people need to understand that deep learning is making a lot of things, behind the scenes, much better" – Sir Geoffrey Hinton Deep Learning can be termed as the best confluence of big data, big models, big compute and big dreams. Deep Learning is an algorithm that has no theoretical limitations of what it can learn; the more data and the more computational (CPU power) time you give, the better it is – Sir Geoffrey Hinton. AILabPage defines Deep learning is "Undeniably a mind-blowing synchronisation technique applied on the bases of 3 foundation pillars large data, computing power, skills (enriched algorithms) and experience which practically has no limits". Deep Learning is a subfield of machine learning domain.
Deep learning techniques can be used to triage suspected cases of Barrett oesophagus, a precursor to oesophageal cancer, potentially leading to faster and earlier diagnoses, say researchers at the University of Cambridge. When researchers applied the technique to analysing samples obtained using the'pill on a string' diagnostic tool Cytosponge, they found that it was capable of reducing by half pathologists' workload while matching the accuracy of even experienced pathologists. Early detection of cancer often leads to better survival because pre-malignant lesions and early stage tumours can be more effectively treated. This is particularly important for oesophageal cancer, the sixth most common cause for cancer-related deaths. Patients usually present at an advanced stage with swallowing difficulties and weight loss.
In this blog, we shall discuss about how to build a neural network to translate from English to German. This problem appeared as the Capstone project for the coursera course "Tensorflow 2: Customising your model", a part of the specialization "Tensorflow2 for Deep Learning", by the Imperial College, London. The problem statement / description / steps are taken from the course itself. We shall use the concepts from the course, including building more flexible model architectures, freezing layers, data processing pipeline and sequence modelling. Here we shall use a language dataset from http://www.manythings.org/anki/
It's no secret that building applications geared for artificial intelligence, machine learning and predictive analytics is a big challenge, even for the most experienced developers. Luckily, the amount of resources available to help both novice and expert programmers build sophisticated and intelligent software continues to grow. This includes major feature updates to popular application development platforms, a deluge of data-intensive algorithms created by open source developers, and an expanse of community-supported libraries. This is particularly true when it comes to the languages and frameworks that now directly target the requirements for developing machine learning applications. Not all of them are quite the same, however, and they vary in aspects that range from data handling capabilities to their associated tool sets.