If you are looking for an answer to the question What is Artificial Intelligence? and you only have a minute, then here's the definition the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence offers on its home page: "the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines."
However, if you are fortunate enough to have more than a minute, then please get ready to embark upon an exciting journey exploring AI (but beware, it could last a lifetime) …
Matrix factorization (MF) is one of the most popular techniques for product recommendation, but is known to suffer from serious cold-start problems. Item cold-start problems are particularly acute in settings such as Tweet recommendation where new items arrive continuously. In this paper, we present a meta-learning strategy to address item cold-start when new items arrive continuously. We propose two deep neural network architectures that implement our meta-learning strategy. The first architecture learns a linear classifier whose weights are determined by the item history while the second architecture learns a neural network whose biases are instead adjusted.
The alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) is one of the most widely used first-order optimisation methods in the literature owing to its simplicity, flexibility and efficiency. Over the years, numerous efforts are made to improve the performance of the method, such as the inertial technique. By studying the geometric properties of ADMM, we discuss the limitations of current inertial accelerated ADMM and then present and analyze an adaptive acceleration scheme for the method. Numerical experiments on problems arising from image processing, statistics and machine learning demonstrate the advantages of the proposed acceleration approach. Papers published at the Neural Information Processing Systems Conference.
Generative adversarial training for imitation learning has shown promising results on high-dimensional and continuous control tasks. This paradigm is based on reducing the imitation learning problem to the density matching problem, where the agent iteratively refines the policy to match the empirical state-action visitation frequency of the expert demonstration. Although this approach has shown to robustly learn to imitate even with scarce demonstration, one must still address the inherent challenge that collecting trajectory samples in each iteration is a costly operation. To address this issue, we first propose a Bayesian formulation of generative adversarial imitation learning (GAIL), where the imitation policy and the cost function are represented as stochastic neural networks. Then, we show that we can significantly enhance the sample efficiency of GAIL leveraging the predictive density of the cost, on an extensive set of imitation learning tasks with high-dimensional states and actions.
We analyze skip-gram with negative-sampling (SGNS), a word embedding method introduced by Mikolov et al., and show that it is implicitly factorizing a word-context matrix, whose cells are the pointwise mutual information (PMI) of the respective word and context pairs, shifted by a global constant. We find that another embedding method, NCE, is implicitly factorizing a similar matrix, where each cell is the (shifted) log conditional probability of a word given its context. We show that using a sparse Shifted Positive PMI word-context matrix to represent words improves results on two word similarity tasks and one of two analogy tasks. When dense low-dimensional vectors are preferred, exact factorization with SVD can achieve solutions that are at least as good as SGNS's solutions for word similarity tasks. On analogy questions SGNS remains superior to SVD.
Bayesian online algorithms for Sum-Product Networks (SPNs) need to update their posterior distribution after seeing one single additional instance. To do so, they must compute moments of the model parameters under this distribution. This unfortunate scaling makes Bayesian online algorithms prohibitively expensive, except for small or tree-structured SPNs. We propose an optimal linear-time algorithm that works even when the SPN is a general directed acyclic graph (DAG), which significantly broadens the applicability of Bayesian online algorithms for SPNs. There are three key ingredients in the design and analysis of our algorithm: 1).
The long-short-term memory (LSTM), though powerful, is memory and computa\x02tion expensive. To alleviate this problem, one approach is to compress its weights by quantization. However, existing quantization methods usually have inferior performance when used on LSTMs. In this paper, we first show theoretically that training a quantized LSTM is difficult because quantization makes the exploding gradient problem more severe, particularly when the LSTM weight matrices are large. We then show that the popularly used weight/layer/batch normalization schemes can help stabilize the gradient magnitude in training quantized LSTMs.
We propose a boosting method, DirectBoost, a greedy coordinate descent algorithm that builds an ensemble classifier of weak classifiers through directly minimizing empirical classification error over labeled training examples; once the training classification error is reduced to a local coordinatewise minimum, DirectBoost runs a greedy coordinate ascent algorithm that continuously adds weak classifiers to maximize any targeted arbitrarily defined margins until reaching a local coordinatewise maximum of the margins in a certain sense. Experimental results on a collection of machine-learning benchmark datasets show that DirectBoost gives consistently better results than AdaBoost, LogitBoost, LPBoost with column generation and BrownBoost, and is noise tolerant when it maximizes an n'th order bottom sample margin. Papers published at the Neural Information Processing Systems Conference.
The Birkhoff polytope (the convex hull of the set of permutation matrices), which is represented using $\Theta(n 2)$ variables and constraints, is frequently invoked in formulating relaxations of optimization problems over permutations. Using a recent construction of Goemans (2010), we show that when optimizing over the convex hull of the permutation vectors (the permutahedron), we can reduce the number of variables and constraints to $\Theta(n \log n)$ in theory and $\Theta(n \log 2 n)$ in practice. We modify the recent convex formulation of the 2-SUM problem introduced by Fogel et al. (2013) to use this polytope, and demonstrate how we can attain results of similar quality in significantly less computational time for large $n$. To our knowledge, this is the first usage of Goemans' compact formulation of the permutahedron in a convex optimization problem. We also introduce a simpler regularization scheme for this convex formulation of the 2-SUM problem that yields good empirical results.
We propose a class of closed-form estimators for sparsity-structured graphical models, expressed as exponential family distributions, under high-dimensional settings. Our approach builds on observing the precise manner in which the classical graphical model MLE breaks down'' under high-dimensional settings. Our estimator uses a carefully constructed, well-defined and closed-form backward map, and then performs thresholding operations to ensure the desired sparsity structure. We corroborate this statistical performance, as well as significant computational advantages via simulations of both discrete and Gaussian graphical models. Papers published at the Neural Information Processing Systems Conference.
We introduce the Sublevel Set (SS) method, a generic method to obtain sufficient guarantees of near-optimality and uniqueness (up to small perturbations) for a clustering. This method can be instantiated for a variety of clustering loss functions for which convex relaxations exist. We demonstrate the applicability of this method by obtaining distribution free guarantees for K-means clustering on realistic data sets. Papers published at the Neural Information Processing Systems Conference.