# Support Vector Machines

### Machine Learning on Apple Podcasts

This course provides a broad introduction to machine learning and statistical pattern recognition. Topics include: supervised learning (generative/discriminative learning, parametric/non-parametric learning, neural networks, support vector machines); unsupervised learning (clustering, dimensionality reduction, kernel methods); learning theory (bias/variance tradeoffs; VC theory; large margins); reinforcement learning and adaptive control.

### Incremental and Decremental Fuzzy Bounded Twin Support Vector Machine

In this paper we present an incremental variant of the Twin Support Vector Machine (TWSVM) called Fuzzy Bounded Twin Support Vector Machine (FBTWSVM) to deal with large datasets and learning from data streams. We combine the TWSVM with a fuzzy membership function, so that each input has a different contribution to each hyperplane in a binary classifier. To solve the pair of quadratic programming problems (QPPs) we use a dual coordinate descent algorithm with a shrinking strategy, and to obtain a robust classification with a fast training we propose the use of a Fourier Gaussian approximation function with our linear FBTWSVM. Inspired by the shrinking technique, the incremental algorithm re-utilizes part of the training method with some heuristics, while the decremental procedure is based on a scored window. The FBTWSVM is also extended for multi-class problems by combining binary classifiers using a Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) approach. Moreover, we analyzed the theoretical foundations properties of the proposed approach and its extension, and the experimental results on benchmark datasets indicate that the FBTWSVM has a fast training and retraining process while maintaining a robust classification performance.

### Design of one-year mortality forecast at hospital admission based: a machine learning approach

Background: Palliative care is referred to a set of programs for patients that suffer life-limiting illnesses. These programs aim to guarantee a minimum level of quality of life (QoL) for the last stage of life. They are currently based on clinical evaluation of risk of one-year mortality. Objectives: The main objective of this work is to develop and validate machine-learning based models to predict the exitus of a patient within the next year using data gathered at hospital admission. Methods: Five machine learning techniques were applied in our study to develop machine-learning predictive models: Support Vector Machines, K-neighbors Classifier, Gradient Boosting Classifier, Random Forest and Multilayer Perceptron. All models were trained and evaluated using the retrospective dataset. The evaluation was performed with five metrics computed by a resampling strategy: Accuracy, the area under the ROC curve, Specificity, Sensitivity, and the Balanced Error Rate. Results: All models for forecasting one-year mortality achieved an AUC ROC from 0.858 to 0.911. Specifically, Gradient Boosting Classifier was the best model, producing an AUC ROC of 0.911 (CI 95%, 0.911 to 0.912), a sensitivity of 0.858 (CI 95%, 0.856 to 0.86) and a specificity of 0.807 (CI 95%, 0.806 to 0808) and a BER of 0.168 (CI 95%, 0.167 to 0.169). Conclusions: The analysis of common information at hospital admission combined with machine learning techniques produced models with competitive discriminative power. Our models reach the best results reported in state of the art. These results demonstrate that they can be used as an accurate data-driven palliative care criteria inclusion.

### Machine Learning Coursera

Machine learning is the science of getting computers to act without being explicitly programmed. In the past decade, machine learning has given us self-driving cars, practical speech recognition, effective web search, and a vastly improved understanding of the human genome. Machine learning is so pervasive today that you probably use it dozens of times a day without knowing it. Many researchers also think it is the best way to make progress towards human-level AI. In this class, you will learn about the most effective machine learning techniques, and gain practice implementing them and getting them to work for yourself.

### Building Machine Learning Models via Comparisons

Nowadays most machine learning (ML) models predict labels from features. In classification tasks, an ML model predicts a categorical value and in regression tasks, an ML model predicts a real value. These ML models thus require a large amount of feature-label pairs. While in practice it is not hard to obtain features, it is often costly to obtain labels because this requires human labor. Can we learn a model without too many feature-label pairs?

### Resource-Efficient Computing in Wearable Systems

We propose two optimization techniques to minimize memory usage and computation while meeting system timing constraints for real-time classification in wearable systems. Our method derives a hierarchical classifier structure for Support Vector Machine (SVM) in order to reduce the amount of computations, based on the probability distribution of output classes occurrences. Also, we propose a memory optimization technique based on SVM parameters, which results in storing fewer support vectors and as a result requiring less memory. To demonstrate the efficiency of our proposed techniques, we performed an activity recognition experiment and were able to save up to 35% and 56% in memory storage when classifying 14 and 6 different activities, respectively. In addition, we demonstrated that there is a trade-off between accuracy of classification and memory savings, which can be controlled based on application requirements.

### QuPWM: Feature Extraction Method for MEG Epileptic Spike Detection

Epilepsy is a neurological disorder classified as the second most serious neurological disease known to humanity, after stroke. Localization of epileptogenic zone is an important step for epileptic patient treatment, which starts with epileptic spike detection. The common practice for spike detection of brain signals is via visual scanning of the recordings, which is a subjective and a very time-consuming task. Motivated by that, this paper focuses on using machine learning for automatic detection of epileptic spikes in magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals. First, we used the Position Weight Matrix (PWM) method combined with a uniform quantizer to generate useful features. Second, the extracted features are classified using a Support Vector Machine (SVM) for the purpose of epileptic spikes detection. The proposed technique shows great potential in improving the spike detection accuracy and reducing the feature vector size. Specifically, the proposed technique achieved average accuracy up to 98% in using 5-folds cross-validation applied to a balanced dataset of 3104 samples. These samples are extracted from 16 subjects where eight are healthy and eight are epileptic subjects using a sliding frame of size of 100 samples-points with a step-size of 2 sample-points.

### Isolation Kernel: The X Factor in Efficient and Effective Large Scale Online Kernel Learning

Large scale online kernel learning aims to build an efficient and scalable kernel-based predictive model incrementally from a sequence of potentially infinite data points. To achieve this aim, the method must be able to deal with a potentially infinite number of support vectors. The current state-of-the-art is unable to deal with even a moderate number of support vectors. This paper identifies the root cause of the current methods, i.e., the type of kernel used which has a feature map of infinite dimensionality. With this revelation and together with our discovery that a recently introduced Isolation Kernel has a finite feature map, to achieve the above aim of large scale online kernel learning becomes extremely simple---simply use Isolation Kernel instead of kernels having infinite feature map. We show for the first time that online kernel learning is able to deal with a potentially infinite number of support vectors.

### modelDown is now on CRAN!

The modelDown package turns classification or regression models into HTML static websites. With one command you can convert one or more models into a website with visual and tabular model summaries. So it's model agnostic (feel free to combine random forest with glm), easy to extend and parameterise. Here you can browse an example website automatically created for 4 classification models (random forest, gradient boosting, support vector machines, k-nearest neighbours). The R code beyond this example is here.

### A Contactless Artificial Intelligence System for Smart Devices Can Identify a Sign of Cardiac Arrest

Researchers at the University of Washington created a tool, which could potentially be developed into an application for smart speakers and smartphones, that uses algorithms and machine learning to identify instances of agonal breathing, a sign of cardiac arrest, with an accuracy of 97% at distances of up to 6 meters away. A contactless support vector machine (SVM), an artificial intelligence system that uses algorithms and machine learning, could be used by smart speakers and similar devices to detect agonal breathing, a symptom of potential cardiac arrest. The machine performs with 97% accuracy from a distance of up to 6 meters away, according to a study in Nature Partner Journals Digital Medicine. "A lot of people have smart speakers in their homes, and these devices have amazing capabilities that we can take advantage of," said sudy co-author Shyam Gollakota, PhD, associate professor at the University of Washington's Paul G. Allen School of Computer Science and Engineering, in a statement.