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Diagnostic Medicine


Real-time Interpretation: The next frontier in radiology AI - MedCity News

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In the nine years since AlexNet spawned the age of deep learning, artificial intelligence (AI) has made significant technological progress in medical imaging, with more than 80 deep-learning algorithms approved by the U.S. FDA since 2012 for clinical applications in image detection and measurement. A 2020 survey found that more than 82% of imaging providers believe AI will improve diagnostic imaging over the next 10 years and the market for AI in medical imaging is expected to grow 10-fold in the same period. Despite this optimistic outlook, AI still falls short of widespread clinical adoption in radiology. A 2020 survey by the American College of Radiology (ACR) revealed that only about a third of radiologists use AI, mostly to enhance image detection and interpretation; of the two thirds who did not use AI, the majority said they saw no benefit to it. In fact, most radiologists would say that AI has not transformed image reading or improved their practices.


Getting Started in Medical AI

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The course takes a top-down approach starting with a few lines of computer code, rather than establishing detailed mathematical notation. The first lesson will guide you through the construction and testing of your own deep learning model.


AI measures fat around the heart to predict diabetes

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A new AI tool that automatically measures the amount of fat around the heart from MRI scans could help predict the risk of developing diabetes and other diseases. Using the new tool, the team led by researchers from Queen Mary University of London was able to show that a larger amount of fat around the heart is associated with significantly greater chances of developing diabetes, regardless of a person's age, sex, and body mass index. The distribution of fat in the body can influence a person's risk of developing various diseases. The commonly used measure of body mass index (BMI) mostly reflects fat accumulation under the skin, rather than around the internal organs. In particular, there are suggestions that fat accumulation around the heart may be a predictor of heart disease, and has been linked to a range of conditions, including atrial fibrillation, diabetes, and coronary artery disease.


Deep Neural Networks Learn by Using Human-Selected ECG Features and Novel Features

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We sought to investigate whether artificial intelligence (AI) and specifically deep neural networks for electrocardiogram (ECG) signal analysis can be explained using human selected features. We also sought to quantify such explainability and test if the AI model learns features that are similar to a human expert. We used a set of 100,000 ECGs that were annotated by human explainable features. We applied both linear and nonlinear models to predict published ECG AI models output for the detection of patients' age and sex. We further used canonical correlation analysis to quantify the amount of shared information between the features found in an unsupervised way.


Diagnosis of vertebral column pathologies using concatenated resampling with machine learning algorithms

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Medical diagnosis through the classification of biomedical attributes is one of the exponentially growing fields in bioinformatics. Although a large number of approaches have been presented in the past, wide use and superior performance of the machine learning (ML) methods in medical diagnosis necessitates significant consideration for automatic diagnostic methods. This study proposes a novel approach called concatenated resampling (CR) to increase the efficacy of traditional ML algorithms. The performance is analyzed leveraging four ML approaches like tree-based ensemble approaches, and linear machine learning approach for automatic diagnosis of inter-vertebral pathologies with increased. Besides, undersampling, over-sampling, and proposed CR techniques have been applied to unbalanced training dataset to analyze the impact of these techniques on the accuracy of each of the classification model. Extensive experiments have been conducted to make comparisons among different classification models using several metrics including accuracy, precision, recall, and F1 score. Comparative analysis has been performed on the experimental results to identify the best performing classifier along with the application of the re-sampling technique. The results show that the extra tree classifier achieves an accuracy of 0.99 in association with the proposed CR technique.


Impact of Data Science in Healthcare

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Data science is widely regarded as one of the most essential parts of any industry in today's marketplace, given the massive amounts of data that are produced. Data Science is growing enormously to occupy all the industries of the world in the current world. In this article, we will understand how data science is transforming the healthcare sector. We will understand various underlying concepts of data science, used in medicine and biotechnology. Medicine and healthcare are two of the most important parts of our human lives. Traditionally, medicine solely relied on the discretion advised by the doctors.


MLCommons Releases MLPerf Training v1.0 Results

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Today, MLCommons, an open engineering consortium, released new results for MLPerf Training v1.0, the organization's machine learning training performance benchmark suite. MLPerf Training measures the time it takes to train machine learning models to a standard quality target in a variety of tasks including image classification, object detection, NLP, recommendation, and reinforcement learning. In its fourth round, MLCommons added two new benchmarks to evaluate the performance of speech-to-text and 3D medical imaging tasks. MLPerf Training is a full system benchmark, testing machine learning models, software, and hardware. With MLPerf, MLCommons now has a reliable and consistent way to track performance improvement over time, plus results from a "level playing field" benchmark drives competition, which in turn is driving performance.


Landmark Detection in Cardiac MRI Using a Convolutional Neural Network

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"Just Accepted" papers have undergone full peer review and have been accepted for publication in Radiology: Artificial Intelligence. This article will undergo copyediting, layout, and proof review before it is published in its final version. Please note that during production of the final copyedited article, errors may be discovered which could affect the content. To develop a convolutional neural network (CNN) solution for landmark detection in cardiac MRI. This retrospective study included cine, late-gadolinium enhancement (LGE), and T1 mapping scans from two hospitals.


Applying Artificial Intelligence in the Bronchoscopy Suite - Pulmonology Advisor

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A proof-of-concept study suggests that artificial intelligence (AI) may classify images captured during rapid onsite examination of endobronchial ultrasound guided transbronchial need aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) with high accuracy. The results of this study were published in the European Respiratory Journal. The use of AI in medicine has become more common in areas such as cervical cancer screening, which has led experts to question its potential in other fields of medicine. No data have been published on the application of AI during rapid on-site examination of EBUS-TBNA. A team of investigators "evaluated the performance of an AI model, consisting of an open-sounded convolutional neural network using transfer learning, for its ability to accurately classify images of [rapid onsite examination] of EBUS-TBNA smears in the bronchoscopy suite."


Artificial Intelligence in Medical Imaging – A Practical Example

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In this article, you will learn about a real-world example of the use of artificial intelligence in medical imaging. Read on to learn the details of how various deep learning models are combined to analyze images taken with a microscope. You may have read use cases where AI is used in medical diagnosis to differentiate between images showing pathological and non-pathological features (e.g. Capillaroscopy consists of observing the blood capillaries at the base of the patient's nails (nail bed) using a microscope called a capillaroscope and helps to determine the state of the patient's vascular system in a simple, fast and non-invasive way. Capillaroscopy is frequently used for the diagnosis and follow-up of some autoimmune diseases such as scleroderma, dermatomyositis or mixed connective tissue disease.