Zhong, Mingjun, Goddard, Nigel, Sutton, Charles

Blind source separation problems are difficult because they are inherently unidentifiable, yet the entire goal is to identify meaningful sources. We introduce a way of incorporating domain knowledge into this problem, called signal aggregate constraints (SACs). SACs encourage the total signal for each of the unknown sources to be close to a specified value. This is based on the observation that the total signal often varies widely across the unknown sources, and we often have a good idea of what total values to expect. We incorporate SACs into an additive factorial hidden Markov model (AFHMM) to formulate the energy disaggregation problems where only one mixture signal is assumed to be observed.

Valkov, Lazar, Chaudhari, Dipak, Srivastava, Akash, Sutton, Charles, Chaudhuri, Swarat

We present a neurosymbolic framework for the lifelong learning of algorithmic tasks that mix perception and procedural reasoning. Reusing high-level concepts across domains and learning complex procedures are key challenges in lifelong learning. We show that a program synthesis approach that combines gradient descent with combinatorial search over programs can be a more effective response to these challenges than purely neural methods. Our framework, called HOUDINI, represents neural networks as strongly typed, differentiable functional programs that use symbolic higher-order combinators to compose a library of neural functions. Our learning algorithm consists of: (1) a symbolic program synthesizer that performs a type-directed search over parameterized programs, and decides on the library functions to reuse, and the architectures to combine them, while learning a sequence of tasks; and (2) a neural module that trains these programs using stochastic gradient descent.

Zhang, Yichuan, Sutton, Charles

Sampling from hierarchical Bayesian models is often difficult for MCMC methods, because of the strong correlations between the model parameters and the hyperparameters. Recent Riemannian manifold Hamiltonian Monte Carlo (RMHMC) methods have significant potential advantages in this setting, but are computationally expensive. We introduce a new RMHMC method, which we call semi-separable Hamiltonian Monte Carlo, which uses a specially designed mass matrix that allows the joint Hamiltonian over model parameters and hyperparameters to decompose into two simpler Hamiltonians. This structure is exploited by a new integrator which we call the alternating blockwise leapfrog algorithm. The resulting method can mix faster than simpler Gibbs sampling while being simpler and more efficient than previous instances of RMHMC.

Zhong, Mingjun, Goddard, Nigel, Sutton, Charles

In many statistical problems, a more coarse-grained model may be suitable for population-level behaviour, whereas a more detailed model is appropriate for accurate modelling of individual behaviour. This raises the question of how to integrate both types of models. Methods such as posterior regularization follow the idea of generalized moment matching, in that they allow matchingexpectations between two models, but sometimes both models are most conveniently expressed as latent variable models. We propose latent Bayesian melding, which is motivated by averaging the distributions over populations statistics of both the individual-level and the population-level models under a logarithmic opinion pool framework. In a case study on electricity disaggregation, which is a type of single-channel blind source separation problem, we show that latent Bayesian melding leads to significantly more accurate predictions than an approach based solely on generalized moment matching.

Srivastava, Akash, Valkov, Lazar, Russell, Chris, Gutmann, Michael U., Sutton, Charles

Deep generative models provide powerful tools for distributions over complicated manifolds, such as those of natural images. But many of these methods, including generative adversarial networks (GANs), can be difficult to train, in part because they are prone to mode collapse, which means that they characterize only a few modes of the true distribution. To address this, we introduce VEEGAN, which features a reconstructor network, reversing the action of the generator by mapping from data to noise. Our training objective retains the original asymptotic consistency guarantee of GANs, and can be interpreted as a novel autoencoder loss over the noise. In sharp contrast to a traditional autoencoder over data points, VEEGAN does not require specifying a loss function over the data, but rather only over the representations, which are standard normal by assumption.

Tarlow, Daniel, Moitra, Subhodeep, Rice, Andrew, Chen, Zimin, Manzagol, Pierre-Antoine, Sutton, Charles, Aftandilian, Edward

Professional software developers spend a significant amount of time fixing builds, but this has received little attention as a problem in automatic program repair. We present a new deep learning architecture, called Graph2Diff, for automatically localizing and fixing build errors. We represent source code, build configuration files, and compiler diagnostic messages as a graph, and then use a Graph Neural Network model to predict a diff. A diff specifies how to modify the code's abstract syntax tree, represented in the neural network as a sequence of tokens and of pointers to code locations. Our network is an instance of a more general abstraction that we call Graph2Tocopo, which is potentially useful in any development tool for predicting source code changes. We evaluate the model on a dataset of over 500k real build errors and their resolutions from professional developers. Compared to the approach of DeepDelta (Mesbah et al., 2019), our approach tackles the harder task of predicting a more precise diff but still achieves over double the accuracy.

Eduardo, Simão, Nazábal, Alfredo, Williams, Christopher K. I., Sutton, Charles

We focus on the problem of unsupervised cell outlier detection in mixed type tabular datasets. Traditional methods for outlier detection are concerned only on detecting which rows in the dataset are outliers. However, identifying which cells in the dataset corrupt a specific row is an important problem in practice, especially in high-dimensional tables. We introduce the Robust Variational Autoencoder (RVAE), a deep generative model that learns the joint distribution of the clean data while identifying the outlier cells in the dataset. RVAE learns the probability of each cell in the dataset being an outlier, balancing the contributions of the different likelihood models in the row outlier score, making the method suitable for outlier detection in mixed type datasets. We show experimentally that the RVAE performs better than several state of the art methods in cell outlier detection for tabular datasets, while providing comparable or better results for row outlier detection.

Valkov, Lazar, Chaudhari, Dipak, Srivastava, Akash, Sutton, Charles, Chaudhuri, Swarat

We present a neurosymbolic framework for the lifelong learning of algorithmic tasks that mix perception and procedural reasoning. Reusing high-level concepts across domains and learning complex procedures are key challenges in lifelong learning. We show that a program synthesis approach that combines gradient descent with combinatorial search over programs can be a more effective response to these challenges than purely neural methods. Our framework, called HOUDINI, represents neural networks as strongly typed, differentiable functional programs that use symbolic higher-order combinators to compose a library of neural functions. Our learning algorithm consists of: (1) a symbolic program synthesizer that performs a type-directed search over parameterized programs, and decides on the library functions to reuse, and the architectures to combine them, while learning a sequence of tasks; and (2) a neural module that trains these programs using stochastic gradient descent. We evaluate HOUDINI on three benchmarks that combine perception with the algorithmic tasks of counting, summing, and shortest-path computation. Our experiments show that HOUDINI transfers high-level concepts more effectively than traditional transfer learning and progressive neural networks, and that the typed representation of networks signiﬁcantly accelerates the search.

Valkov, Lazar, Chaudhari, Dipak, Srivastava, Akash, Sutton, Charles, Chaudhuri, Swarat

Chen, Jiaoyan, Jimenez-Ruiz, Ernesto, Horrocks, Ian, Sutton, Charles

Automatically annotating column types with knowledge base (KB) concepts is a critical task to gain a basic understanding of web tables. Current methods rely on either table metadata like column name or entity correspondences of cells in the KB, and may fail to deal with growing web tables with incomplete meta information. In this paper we propose a neural network based column type annotation framework named ColNet which is able to integrate KB reasoning and lookup with machine learning and can automatically train Convolutional Neural Networks for prediction. The prediction model not only considers the contextual semantics within a cell using word representation, but also embeds the semantics of a column by learning locality features from multiple cells. The method is evaluated with DBPedia and two different web table datasets, T2Dv2 from the general Web and Limaye from Wikipedia pages, and achieves higher performance than the state-of-the-art approaches.