"Machine translation (MT) is the application of computers to the task of translating texts from one natural language to another. One of the very earliest pursuits in computer science, MT has proved to be an elusive goal, but today a number of systems are available which produce output which, if not perfect, is of sufficient quality to be useful in a number of specific domains."
– Definition from the European Association for Machine Translation (EAMT).
Any high school student would guess there is a cosine involved when they see an integral of a sine. Regardless of whether the person understands the thought process behind these functions, it does the job for them. This intuition behind calculus is rarely explored. Though Newton and Leibnitz developed advanced mathematics to solve real-world problems, today most of the schools teach differential equations through semantics. The linguistic appeal of mathematics might get grades in high school, but in the world of research, this is hysterical.
Does anyone know of scientific literature that shows that, even in cases in which we have enough parallel data (English-French), use of monolingual data can be beneficial? To me it seems reasonable that if we, for instance, added monolingual data to the decoder, it would be better at scoring candidate predictions in terms of fluency. That being said, I cannot find peer-reviewed articles that show this.
We address the problem of learning classifiers when observations have multiple views, some of which may not be observed for all examples. We assume the existence of view generating functions which may complete the missing views in an approximate way. This situation corresponds for example to learning text classifiers from multilingual collections where documents are not available in all languages. In that case, Machine Translation (MT) systems may be used to translate each document in the missing languages. We derive a generalization error bound for classifiers learned on examples with multiple artificially created views.
The vast majority of successful deep neural networks are trained using variants of stochastic gradient descent (SGD) algorithms. Recent attempts to improve SGD can be broadly categorized into two approaches: (1) adaptive learning rate schemes, such as AdaGrad and Adam and (2) accelerated schemes, such as heavy-ball and Nesterov momentum. In this paper, we propose a new optimization algorithm, Lookahead, that is orthogonal to these previous approaches and iteratively updates two sets of weights. Intuitively, the algorithm chooses a search direction by looking ahead at the sequence of fast weights" generated by another optimizer. We show that Lookahead improves the learning stability and lowers the variance of its inner optimizer with negligible computation and memory cost.
Neural Machine Translation (NMT) has achieved remarkable progress with the quick evolvement of model structures. In this paper, we propose the concept of layer-wise coordination for NMT, which explicitly coordinates the learning of hidden representations of the encoder and decoder together layer by layer, gradually from low level to high level. Specifically, we design a layer-wise attention and mixed attention mechanism, and further share the parameters of each layer between the encoder and decoder to regularize and coordinate the learning. Experiments show that combined with the state-of-the-art Transformer model, layer-wise coordination achieves improvements on three IWSLT and two WMT translation tasks. More specifically, our method achieves 34.43 and 29.01 BLEU score on WMT16 English-Romanian and WMT14 English-German tasks, outperforming the Transformer baseline.
Computer vision has benefited from initializing multiple deep layers with weights pretrained on large supervised training sets like ImageNet. Natural language processing (NLP) typically sees initialization of only the lowest layer of deep models with pretrained word vectors. In this paper, we use a deep LSTM encoder from an attentional sequence-to-sequence model trained for machine translation (MT) to contextualize word vectors. We show that adding these context vectors (CoVe) improves performance over using only unsupervised word and character vectors on a wide variety of common NLP tasks: sentiment analysis (SST, IMDb), question classification (TREC), entailment (SNLI), and question answering (SQuAD). For fine-grained sentiment analysis and entailment, CoVe improves performance of our baseline models to the state of the art.
Teaching is critical to human society: it is with teaching that prospective students are educated and human civilization can be inherited and advanced. A good teacher not only provides his/her students with qualified teaching materials (e.g., textbooks), but also sets up appropriate learning objectives (e.g., course projects and exams) considering different situations of a student. When it comes to artificial intelligence, treating machine learning models as students, the loss functions that are optimized act as perfect counterparts of the learning objective set by the teacher. In this work, we explore the possibility of imitating human teaching behaviors by dynamically and automatically outputting appropriate loss functions to train machine learning models. Different from typical learning settings in which the loss function of a machine learning model is predefined and fixed, in our framework, the loss function of a machine learning model (we call it student) is defined by another machine learning model (we call it teacher).
Neural language models (NLMs) have recently gained a renewed interest by achieving state-of-the-art performance across many natural language processing (NLP) tasks. However, NLMs are very computationally demanding largely due to the computational cost of the decoding process, which consists of a softmax layer over a large vocabulary.We observe that in the decoding of many NLP tasks, only the probabilities of the top-K hypotheses need to be calculated preciously and K is often much smaller than the vocabulary size. This paper proposes a novel softmax layer approximation algorithm, called Fast Graph Decoder (FGD), which quickly identifies, for a given context, a set of K words that are most likely to occur according to a NLM. We demonstrate that FGD reduces the decoding time by an order of magnitude while attaining close to the full softmax baseline accuracy on neural machine translation and language modeling tasks. We also prove the theoretical guarantee on the softmax approximation quality.
Neural machine translation models usually use the encoder-decoder framework and generate translation from left to right (or right to left) without fully utilizing the target-side global information. A few recent approaches seek to exploit the global information through two-pass decoding, yet have limitations in translation quality and model efficiency. In this work, we propose a new framework that introduces a soft prototype into the encoder-decoder architecture, which allows the decoder to have indirect access to both past and future information, such that each target word can be generated based on the better global understanding. We further provide an efficient and effective method to generate the prototype. Empirical studies on various neural machine translation tasks show that our approach brings significant improvement in generation quality over the baseline model, with little extra cost in storage and inference time, demonstrating the effectiveness of our proposed framework.
Machine Comprehension (MC) is one of the core problems in natural language processing, requiring both understanding of the natural language and knowledge about the world. Rapid progress has been made since the release of several benchmark datasets, and recently the state-of-the-art models even surpass human performance on the well-known SQuAD evaluation. In this paper, we transfer knowledge learned from machine comprehension to the sequence-to-sequence tasks to deepen the understanding of the text. We propose MacNet: a novel encoder-decoder supplementary architecture to the widely used attention-based sequence-to-sequence models. Experiments on neural machine translation (NMT) and abstractive text summarization show that our proposed framework can significantly improve the performance of the baseline models, and our method for the abstractive text summarization achieves the state-of-the-art results on the Gigaword dataset.