Not All Features Are Equal: Feature Leveling Deep Neural Networks for Better Interpretation

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Self-explaining models are models that reveal decision making parameters in an interpretable manner so that the model reasoning process can be directly understood by human beings. General Linear Models (GLMs) are self-explaining because the model weights directly show how each feature contributes to the output value. However, deep neural networks (DNNs) are in general not self-explaining due to the non-linearity of the activation functions, complex architectures, obscure feature extraction and transformation process. In this work, we illustrate the fact that existing deep architectures are hard to interpret because each hidden layer carries a mix of low level features and high level features. As a solution, we propose a novel feature leveling architecture that isolates low level features from high level features on a per-layer basis to better utilize the GLM layer in the proposed architecture for interpretation. Experimental results show that our modified models are able to achieve competitive results comparing to main-stream architectures on standard datasets while being more self-explainable. Our implementations and configurations are publicly available for reproductions


On the Behavior of Convolutional Nets for Feature Extraction

Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research

Deep neural networks are representation learning techniques. During training, a deep net is capable of generating a descriptive language of unprecedented size and detail in machine learning. Extracting the descriptive language coded within a trained CNN model (in the case of image data), and reusing it for other purposes is a field of interest, as it provides access to the visual descriptors previously learnt by the CNN after processing millions of images, without requiring an expensive training phase. Contributions to this field (commonly known as feature representation transfer or transfer learning) have been purely empirical so far, extracting all CNN features from a single layer close to the output and testing their performance by feeding them to a classifier. This approach has provided consistent results, although its relevance is limited to classification tasks.


Sleep Stage Classification Based on Multi-level Feature Learning and Recurrent Neural Networks via Wearable Device

arXiv.org Machine Learning

This paper proposes a practical approach for automatic sleep stage classification based on a multi-level feature learning framework and Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) classifier using heart rate and wrist actigraphy derived from a wearable device. The feature learning framework is designed to extract low- and mid-level features. Low-level features capture temporal and frequency domain properties and mid-level features learn compositions and structural information of signals. Since sleep staging is a sequential problem with long-term dependencies, we take advantage of RNNs with Bidirectional Long Short-Term Memory (BLSTM) architectures for sequence data learning. To simulate the actual situation of daily sleep, experiments are conducted with a resting group in which sleep is recorded in resting state, and a comprehensive group in which both resting sleep and non-resting sleep are included.We evaluate the algorithm based on an eight-fold cross validation to classify five sleep stages (W, N1, N2, N3, and REM). The proposed algorithm achieves weighted precision, recall and F1 score of 58.0%, 60.3%, and 58.2% in the resting group and 58.5%, 61.1%, and 58.5% in the comprehensive group, respectively. Various comparison experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of feature learning and BLSTM. We further explore the influence of depth and width of RNNs on performance. Our method is specially proposed for wearable devices and is expected to be applicable for long-term sleep monitoring at home. Without using too much prior domain knowledge, our method has the potential to generalize sleep disorder detection.


Structured Pruning of Deep Convolutional Neural Networks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Real time application of deep learning algorithms is often hindered by high computational complexity and frequent memory accesses. Network pruning is a promising technique to solve this problem. However, pruning usually results in irregular network connections that not only demand extra representation efforts but also do not fit well on parallel computation. We introduce structured sparsity at various scales for convolutional neural networks, which are channel wise, kernel wise and intra kernel strided sparsity. This structured sparsity is very advantageous for direct computational resource savings on embedded computers, parallel computing environments and hardware based systems. To decide the importance of network connections and paths, the proposed method uses a particle filtering approach. The importance weight of each particle is assigned by computing the misclassification rate with corresponding connectivity pattern. The pruned network is re-trained to compensate for the losses due to pruning. While implementing convolutions as matrix products, we particularly show that intra kernel strided sparsity with a simple constraint can significantly reduce the size of kernel and feature map matrices. The pruned network is finally fixed point optimized with reduced word length precision. This results in significant reduction in the total storage size providing advantages for on-chip memory based implementations of deep neural networks.


Learning to Learn with Compound HD Models

Neural Information Processing Systems

We introduce HD (or Hierarchical-Deep'') models, a new compositional learning architecture that integrates deep learning models with structured hierarchical Bayesian models. Specifically we show how we can learn a hierarchical Dirichlet process (HDP) prior over the activities of the top-level features in a Deep Boltzmann Machine (DBM). This compound HDP-DBM model learns to learn novel concepts from very few training examples, by learning low-level generic features, high-level features that capture correlations among low-level features, and a category hierarchy for sharing priors over the high-level features that are typical of different kinds of concepts. We present efficient learning and inference algorithms for the HDP-DBM model and show that it is able to learn new concepts from very few examples on CIFAR-100 object recognition, handwritten character recognition, and human motion capture datasets. Papers published at the Neural Information Processing Systems Conference.