My parents and I used to eat at a restaurant where I would spend the entire dinner interrogating them why in the world the lights were so dim. Displaying great patience (or maybe great hunger), they would calmly repeat, "It's for ambiance." The restaurant was trying to maintain the mood, they said, to add a certain something to the meal. I stubbornly maintained that seeing my food could only add to the sensation of tasting it. The restaurant has since closed (probably because no one could see their food), but researchers are just beginning to understand the complex web of communication between the senses.

Multisensory response enhancement (MRE) is the augmentation of the response of a neuron to sensory input of one modality by simultaneous inputfrom another modality. The maximum likelihood (ML) model presented here modifies the Bayesian model for MRE (Anastasio et al.) by incorporating a decision strategy to maximize the number of correct decisions. Thus the ML model can also deal with the important tasks of stimulus discrimination and identification inthe presence of incongruent visual and auditory cues. It accounts for the inverse effectiveness observed in neurophysiological recordingdata, and it predicts a functional relation between uni-and bimodal levels of discriminability that is testable both in neurophysiological and behavioral experiments.

Zhang, Wen-Hao, Wang, He, Wong, K. Y. Michael, Wu, Si

Experiments reveal that in the dorsal medial superior temporal (MSTd) and the ventral intraparietal (VIP) areas, where visual and vestibular cues are integrated to infer heading direction, there are two types of neurons with roughly the same number. One is “congruent” cells, whose preferred heading directions are similar in response to visual and vestibular cues; and the other is “opposite” cells, whose preferred heading directions are nearly “opposite” (with an offset of 180 degree) in response to visual vs. vestibular cues. Congruent neurons are known to be responsible for cue integration, but the computational role of opposite neurons remains largely unknown. Here, we propose that opposite neurons may serve to encode the disparity information between cues necessary for multisensory segregation. We build a computational model composed of two reciprocally coupled modules, MSTd and VIP, and each module consists of groups of congruent and opposite neurons. In the model, congruent neurons in two modules are reciprocally connected with each other in the congruent manner, whereas opposite neurons are reciprocally connected in the opposite manner. Mimicking the experimental protocol, our model reproduces the characteristics of congruent and opposite neurons, and demonstrates that in each module, the sisters of congruent and opposite neurons can jointly achieve optimal multisensory information integration and segregation. This study sheds light on our understanding of how the brain implements optimal multisensory integration and segregation concurrently in a distributed manner.

Kurthen, Maximilian, Enßlin, Torsten A.

We address the problem of two-variable causal inference. This task is to infer an existing causal relation between two random variables, i.e. $X \rightarrow Y$ or $Y \rightarrow X$, from purely observational data. We briefly review a number of state-of-the-art methods for this, including very recent ones. A novel inference method is introduced, Bayesian Causal Inference (BCI), which assumes a generative Bayesian hierarchical model to pursue the strategy of Bayesian model selection. In the model the distribution of the cause variable is given by a Poisson lognormal distribution, which allows to explicitly regard discretization effects. We assume Fourier diagonal Field covariance operators. The generative model assumed provides synthetic causal data for benchmarking our model in comparison to existing State-of-the-art models, namely LiNGAM, ANM-HSIC, ANM-MML, IGCI and CGNN. We explore how well the above methods perform in case of high noise settings, strongly discretized data and very sparse data. BCI performs generally reliable with synthetic data as well as with the real world TCEP benchmark set, with an accuracy comparable to state-of-the-art algorithms.

Lazar, Aurel A., Slutskiy, Yevgeniy

We investigate a spiking neuron model of multisensory integration. Multiple stimuli from different sensory modalities are encoded by a single neural circuit comprised of a multisensory bank of receptive fields in cascade with a population of biophysical spike generators. We demonstrate that stimuli of different dimensions can be faithfully multiplexed and encoded in the spike domain and derive tractable algorithms for decoding each stimulus from the common pool of spikes. We also show that the identification of multisensory processing in a single neuron is dual to the recovery of stimuli encoded with a population of multisensory neurons, and prove that only a projection of the circuit onto input stimuli can be identified. We provide an example of multisensory integration using natural audio and video and discuss the performance of the proposed decoding and identification algorithms.