Recursive neural models have achieved promising results in many natural language processing tasks. The main difference among these models lies in the composition function, i.e., how to obtain the vector representation for a phrase or sentence using the representations of words it contains. This paper introduces a novel Adaptive Multi-Compositionality (AdaMC) layer to recursive neural models. The basic idea is to use more than one composition functions and adaptively select them depending on the input vectors. We present a general framework to model each semantic composition as a distribution over these composition functions. The composition functions and parameters used for adaptive selection are learned jointly from data. We integrate AdaMC into existing recursive neural models and conduct extensive experiments on the Stanford Sentiment Treebank. The results illustrate that AdaMC significantly outperforms state-of-the-art sentiment classification methods. It helps push the best accuracy of sentence-level negative/positive classification from 85.4% up to 88.5%.
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In the last few years, deep neural networks have dominated pattern recognition. They blew the previous state of the art out of the water for many computer vision tasks. Voice recognition is also moving that way. But despite the results, we have to wonder… why do they work so well? In doing so, I hope to make accessible one promising answer as to why deep neural networks work. I think it's a very elegant perspective. A neural network with a hidden layer has universality: given enough hidden units, it can approximate any function. This is a frequently quoted – and even more frequently, misunderstood and applied – theorem.
Our system beats other approaches on Stanford Sentiment Treebank while using dramatically less data. The number of labeled examples it takes two variants of our model (the green and blue lines) to match fully supervised approaches, each trained with 6,920 examples (the dashed gray lines). Our L1-regularized model (pretrained in an unsupervised fashion on Amazon reviews) matches multichannel CNN performance with only 11 labeled examples, and state-of-the-art CT-LSTM Ensembles with 232 examples. We were very surprised that our model learned an interpretable feature, and that simply predicting the next character in Amazon reviews resulted in discovering the concept of sentiment. We believe the phenomenon is not specific to our model, but is instead a general property of certain large neural networks that are trained to predict the next step or dimension in their inputs.
Deep Learning is a new area of Machine Learning research that has been gaining significant media interest owing to the role it is playing in artificial intelligence applications like image recognition, self-driving cars and most recently the AlphaGo vs. Lee Sedol matches. Recently, Deep Learning techniques have become popular in solving traditional Natural Language Processing problems like Sentiment Analysis. For those of you that are new to the topic of Deep Learning, we have put together a list of ten common terms and concepts explained in simple English, which will hopefully make them a bit easier to understand. We've done the same in the past for Machine Learning and NLP terms, which you might also find interesting. In the human brain, a neuron is a cell that processes and transmits information.