We propose a method for reconstruction of human brain states directly from functional neuroimaging data. The method extends the traditional multivariate regression analysis of discretized fMRI data to the domain of stochastic functional measurements, facilitating evaluation of brain responses to naturalistic stimuli and boosting the power of functional imaging. The method searches for sets of voxel timecourses that optimize a multivariate functional linear model in terms of Rsquare-statistic. Population based incremental learning is used to search for spatially distributed voxel clusters, taking into account the variation in Haemodynamic lag across brain areas and among subjects by voxel-wise non-linear registration of stimuli to fMRI data. The method captures spatially distributed brain responses to naturalistic stimuli without attempting to localize function. Application of the method for prediction of naturalistic stimuli from new and unknown fMRI data shows that the approach is capable of identifying distributed clusters of brain locations that are highly predictive of a specific stimuli.
Inter-subject parcellation of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data based on a standard General Linear Model (GLM)and spectral clustering was recently proposed as a means to alleviate the issues associated with spatial normalization in fMRI. However, for all its appeal, a GLM-based parcellation approach introduces its own biases, in the form of a priori knowledge about the shape of Hemodynamic Response Function (HRF) and task-related signal changes, or about the subject behaviour during the task. In this paper, we introduce a data-driven version of the spectral clustering parcellation, based on Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and Partial Least Squares (PLS) instead of the GLM. First, a number of independent components are automatically selected. Seed voxels are then obtained from the associated ICA maps and we compute the PLS latent variables between the fMRI signal of the seed voxels (which covers regional variations of the HRF) and the principal components of the signal across all voxels. Finally, we parcellate all subjects data with a spectral clustering of the PLS latent variables. We present results of the application of the proposed method on both single-subject and multi-subject fMRI datasets. Preliminary experimental results, evaluated with intra-parcel variance of GLM t-values and PLS derived t-values, indicate that this data-driven approach offers improvement in terms of parcellation accuracy over GLM based techniques.
Background: A universal unanswered question in neuroscience and machine learning is whether computers can decode the patterns of the human brain. Multi-Voxels Pattern Analysis (MVPA) is a critical tool for addressing this question. However, there are two challenges in the previous MVPA methods, which include decreasing sparsity and noise in the extracted features and increasing the performance of prediction. Methods: In overcoming mentioned challenges, this paper proposes Anatomical Pattern Analysis (APA) for decoding visual stimuli in the human brain. This framework develops a novel anatomical feature extraction method and a new imbalance AdaBoost algorithm for binary classification. Further, it utilizes an Error-Correcting Output Codes (ECOC) method for multiclass prediction. APA can automatically detect active regions for each category of the visual stimuli. Moreover, it enables us to combine homogeneous datasets for applying advanced classification. Results and Conclusions: Experimental studies on 4 visual categories (words, consonants, objects and scrambled photos) demonstrate that the proposed approach achieves superior performance to state-of-the-art methods.
The category of visual stimuli has been reliably decoded from patterns of neural activity in extrastriate visual cortex . It has yet to be seen whether object identity can be inferred from this activity. We present fMRI data measuring responses in human extrastriate cortex to a set of 12 distinct object images. We use a simple winner-take-all classifier, using half the data from each recording session as a training set, to evaluate encoding of object identity across fMRI voxels. Since this approach is sensitive to the inclusion of noisy voxels, we describe two methods for identifying subsets of voxels in the data which optimally distinguish object identity. One method characterizes the reliability of each voxel within subsets of the data, while another estimates the mutual information of each voxel with the stimulus set. We find that both metrics can identify subsets of the data which reliably encode object identity, even when noisy measurements are artificially added to the data. The mutual information metric is less efficient at this task, likely due to constraints in fMRI data.