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The Sample Complexity of Semi-Supervised Learning with Nonparametric Mixture Models

Neural Information Processing Systems

We study the sample complexity of semi-supervised learning (SSL) and introduce new assumptions based on the mismatch between a mixture model learned from unlabeled data and the true mixture model induced by the (unknown) class conditional distributions. Under these assumptions, we establish an $\Omega(K\log K)$ labeled sample complexity bound without imposing parametric assumptions, where $K$ is the number of classes. Our results suggest that even in nonparametric settings it is possible to learn a near-optimal classifier using only a few labeled samples. Unlike previous theoretical work which focuses on binary classification, we consider general multiclass classification ($K>2$), which requires solving a difficult permutation learning problem. This permutation defines a classifier whose classification error is controlled by the Wasserstein distance between mixing measures, and we provide finite-sample results characterizing the behaviour of the excess risk of this classifier. Finally, we describe three algorithms for computing these estimators based on a connection to bipartite graph matching, and perform experiments to illustrate the superiority of the MLE over the majority vote estimator.


Sample Complexity of Nonparametric Semi-Supervised Learning

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We study the sample complexity of semi-supervised learning (SSL) and introduce new assumptions based on the mismatch between a mixture model learned from unlabeled data and the true mixture model induced by the (unknown) class conditional distributions. Under these assumptions, we establish an $\Omega(K\log K)$ labeled sample complexity bound without imposing parametric assumptions, where $K$ is the number of classes. Our results suggest that even in nonparametric settings it is possible to learn a near-optimal classifier using only a few labeled samples. Unlike previous theoretical work which focuses on binary classification, we consider general multiclass classification ($K>2$), which requires solving a difficult permutation learning problem. This permutation defines a classifier whose classification error is controlled by the Wasserstein distance between mixing measures, and we provide finite-sample results characterizing the behaviour of the excess risk of this classifier. Finally, we describe three algorithms for computing these estimators based on a connection to bipartite graph matching, and perform experiments to illustrate the superiority of the MLE over the majority vote estimator.


The Value of Labeled and Unlabeled Examples when the Model is Imperfect

Neural Information Processing Systems

Semi-supervised learning, i.e. learning from both labeled and unlabeled data has received significant attention in the machine learning literature in recent years. Still our understanding of the theoretical foundations of the usefulness of unlabeled data remains somewhat limited. The simplest and the best understood situation is when the data is described by an identifiable mixture model, and where each class comes from a pure component. This natural setup and its implications ware analyzed in [11, 5]. One important result was that in certain regimes, labeled data becomes exponentially more valuable than unlabeled data. However, in most realistic situations, one would not expect that the data comes from a parametric mixture distribution with identifiable components.


The Value of Labeled and Unlabeled Examples when the Model is Imperfect

Neural Information Processing Systems

Semi-supervised learning, i.e. learning from both labeled and unlabeled data has received significant attention in the machine learning literature in recent years. Still our understanding of the theoretical foundations of the usefulness of unlabeled data remains somewhat limited. The simplest and the best understood situation is when the data is described by an identifiable mixture model, and where each class comes from a pure component. This natural setup and its implications ware analyzed in [11, 5]. One important result was that in certain regimes, labeled data becomes exponentially more valuable than unlabeled data. However, in most realistic situations, one would not expect that the data comes from a parametric mixture distribution with identifiable components.


The Value of Labeled and Unlabeled Examples when the Model is Imperfect

Neural Information Processing Systems

Semi-supervised learning, i.e. learning from both labeled and unlabeled data has received significant attention in the machine learning literature in recent years.