Large-Scale Matrix Factorization with Missing Data under Additional Constraints

Neural Information Processing Systems

Matrix factorization in the presence of missing data is at the core of many computer vision problems such as structure from motion (SfM), non-rigid SfM and photometric stereo. We formulate the problem of matrix factorization with missing data as a low-rank semidefinite program (LRSDP) with the advantage that: $1)$ an efficient quasi-Newton implementation of the LRSDP enables us to solve large-scale factorization problems, and $2)$ additional constraints such as ortho-normality, required in orthographic SfM, can be directly incorporated in the new formulation. Our empirical evaluations suggest that, under the conditions of matrix completion theory, the proposed algorithm finds the optimal solution, and also requires fewer observations compared to the current state-of-the-art algorithms. We further demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in solving the affine SfM problem, non-rigid SfM and photometric stereo problems.

Grouping-Based Low-Rank Trajectory Completion and 3D Reconstruction

Neural Information Processing Systems

Extracting 3D shape of deforming objects in monocular videos, a task known as non-rigid structure-from-motion (NRSfM), has so far been studied only on synthetic datasets and controlled environments. Typically, the objects to reconstruct are pre-segmented, they exhibit limited rotations and occlusions, or full-length trajectories are assumed. In order to integrate NRSfM into current video analysis pipelines, one needs to consider as input realistic -thus incomplete- tracking, and perform spatio-temporal grouping to segment the objects from their surroundings. Furthermore, NRSfM needs to be robust to noise in both segmentation and tracking, e.g., drifting, segmentation ``leaking'', optical flow ``bleeding'' etc. In this paper, we make a first attempt towards this goal, and propose a method that combines dense optical flow tracking, motion trajectory clustering and NRSfM for 3D reconstruction of objects in videos. For each trajectory cluster, we compute multiple reconstructions by minimizing the reprojection error and the rank of the 3D shape under different rank bounds of the trajectory matrix. We show that dense 3D shape is extracted and trajectories are completed across occlusions and low textured regions, even under mild relative motion between the object and the camera. We achieve competitive results on a public NRSfM benchmark while using fixed parameters across all sequences and handling incomplete trajectories, in contrast to existing approaches. We further test our approach on popular video segmentation datasets. To the best of our knowledge, our method is the first to extract dense object models from realistic videos, such as those found in Youtube or Hollywood movies, without object-specific priors.

Learning Non-Rigid 3D Shape from 2D Motion

Neural Information Processing Systems

This paper presents an algorithm for learning the time-varying shape of a nonrigid 3D object from uncalibrated 2D tracking data. We model shape motion as a rigid component (rotation and translation) combined with a nonrigid deformation. Reconstruction is ill-posed if arbitrary deformations areallowed. We constrain the problem by assuming that the object shape at each time instant is drawn from a Gaussian distribution. Based on this assumption, the algorithm simultaneously estimates 3D shape and motion for each time frame, learns the parameters of the Gaussian, and robustly fills-in missing data points. We then extend the algorithm to model temporal smoothness in object shape, thus allowing it to handle severe cases of missing data.

Learning Graphical Models of Images, Videos and Their Spatial Transformations Machine Learning

Mixtures of Gaussians, factor analyzers (probabilistic PCA) and hidden Markov models are staples of static and dynamic data modeling and image and video modeling in particular. We show how topographic transformations in the input, such as translation and shearing in images, can be accounted for in these models by including a discrete transformation variable. The resulting models perform clustering, dimensionality reduction and time-series analysis in a way that is invariant to transformations in the input. Using the EM algorithm, these transformation-invariant models can be fit to static data and time series. We give results on filtering microscopy images, face and facial pose clustering, handwritten digit modeling and recognition, video clustering, object tracking, and removal of distractions from video sequences.

Distributed Probabilistic Learning for Camera Networks with Missing Data

Neural Information Processing Systems

Probabilistic approaches to computer vision typically assume a centralized setting, with the algorithm granted access to all observed data points. However, many problems in wide-area surveillance can benefit from distributed modeling, either because of physical or computational constraints. Most distributed models to date use algebraic approaches (such as distributed SVD) and as a result cannot explicitly deal with missing data. In this work we present an approach to estimation and learning of generative probabilistic models in a distributed context where certain sensor data can be missing. In particular, we show how traditional centralized models, such as probabilistic PCA and missing-data PPCA, can be learned when the data is distributed across a network of sensors. We demonstrate the utility of this approach on the problem of distributed affine structure from motion. Our experiments suggest that the accuracy of the learned probabilistic structure and motion models rivals that of traditional centralized factorization methods while being able to handle challenging situations such as missing or noisy observations.