Recognizing facial action units (AUs) from spontaneous facial expressions is still a challenging problem. Most recently, CNNs have shown promise on facial AU recognition. However, the learned CNNs are often overfitted and do not generalize well to unseen subjects due to limited AU-coded training images. We proposed a novel Incremental Boosting CNN (IB-CNN) to integrate boosting into the CNN via an incremental boosting layer that selects discriminative neurons from the lower layer and is incrementally updated on successive mini-batches. In addition, a novel loss function that accounts for errors from both the incremental boosted classifier and individual weak classifiers was proposed to fine-tune the IB-CNN. Experimental results on four benchmark AU databases have demonstrated that the IB-CNN yields significant improvement over the traditional CNN and the boosting CNN without incremental learning, as well as outperforming the state-of-the-art CNN-based methods in AU recognition. The improvement is more impressive for the AUs that have the lowest frequencies in the databases.
Computer animated agents and robots bring a social dimension to human computerinteraction and force us to think in new ways about how computers could be used in daily life. Face to face communication is a real-time process operating at a time scale of less than a second. In this paper we present progress on a perceptual primitive to automatically detect frontal faces in the video stream and code them with respect to 7 dimensions in real time: neutral, anger, disgust, fear, joy, sadness, surprise. Theface finder employs a cascade of feature detectors trained with boosting techniques [13, 2]. The expression recognizer employs a novel combination of Adaboost and SVM's. The generalization performance to new subjects for a 7-way forced choice was 93.3% and 97% correct on two publicly available datasets.
This paper describes an automated system for detecting polar expressions about a topic of interest. The two elementary components of this approach are a shallow NLP polar language extraction system and a machine learning based topic classifier. These components are composed together by making a simple but accurate collocation assumption: if a topical sentence contains polar language, the system predicts that the polar language is reflective of the topic, and not some other subject matter. We evaluate our system, components and assumption on a corpus of online consumer messages. Based on these components, we discuss how to measure the overall sentiment about a particular topic as expressed in online messages authored by many different people. We propose to use the fundamentals of Bayesian statistics to form an aggregate authorial opinion metric. This metric would propagate uncertainties introduced by the polarity and topic modules to facilitate statistically valid comparisons of opinion across multiple topics.
An event without a timeline does not carry much information. Description of an event is useful only when it can be augmented with the timeline of its occurrence. This is more important with the online publishing of news articles. News articles are nothing but a set of text-based descriptions of events. Therefore the actual timelines of the article as well as each individual event are most important ingredients for their informativeness.