The assumption that data samples are independent and identically distributed (iid) is standard in many areas of statistics and machine learning. Nevertheless, in some settings, such as social networks, infectious disease modeling, and reasoning with spatial and temporal data, this assumption is false. An extensive literature exists on making causal inferences under the iid assumption [12, 8, 21, 16], but, as pointed out in [14], causal inference in non-iid contexts is challenging due to the combination of unobserved confounding bias and data dependence. In this paper we develop a general theory describing when causal inferences are possible in such scenarios. We use segregated graphs [15], a generalization of latent projection mixed graphs [23], to represent causal models of this type and provide a complete algorithm for non-parametric identification in these models. We then demonstrate how statistical inferences may be performed on causal parameters identified by this algorithm, even in cases where parts of the model exhibit full interference, meaning only a single sample is available for parts of the model [19]. We apply these techniques to a synthetic data set which considers the adoption of fake news articles given the social network structure, articles read by each person, and baseline demographics and socioeconomic covariates.

Jaber, Amin, Zhang, Jiji, Bareinboim, Elias

Assessing the magnitude of cause-and-effect relations is one of the central challenges found throughout the empirical sciences. The problem of identification of causal effects is concerned with determining whether a causal effect can be computed from a combination of observational data and substantive knowledge about the domain under investigation, which is formally expressed in the form of a causal graph. In many practical settings, however, the knowledge available for the researcher is not strong enough so as to specify a unique causal graph. Another line of investigation attempts to use observational data to learn a qualitative description of the domain called a Markov equivalence class, which is the collection of causal graphs that share the same set of observed features. In this paper, we marry both approaches and study the problem of causal identification from an equivalence class, represented by a partial ancestral graph (PAG). We start by deriving a set of graphical properties of PAGs that are carried over to its induced subgraphs. We then develop an algorithm to compute the effect of an arbitrary set of variables on an arbitrary outcome set. We show that the algorithm is strictly more powerful than the current state of the art found in the literature.

Kalainathan, Diviyan, Goudet, Olivier

This paper presents a new open source Python framework for causal discovery from observational data and domain background knowledge, aimed at causal graph and causal mechanism modeling. The Cdt package implements the end-to-end approach, recovering the direct dependencies (the skeleton of the causal graph) and the causal relationships between variables. It includes algorithms from the'Bnlearn' (Scutari, 2018) and'Pcalg' (Kalisch et al., 2018) packages, together with algorithms for pairwise causal discovery such as ANM (Hoyer et al., 2009).

Shpitser, Ilya, Richardson, Thomas S., Robins, James M.

Probabilistic inference in graphical models is the task of computing marginal and conditional densities of interest from a factorized representation of a joint probability distribution. Inference algorithms such as variable elimination and belief propagation take advantage of constraints embedded in this factorization to compute such densities efficiently. In this paper, we propose an algorithm which computes interventional distributions in latent variable causal models represented by acyclic directed mixed graphs(ADMGs). To compute these distributions efficiently, we take advantage of a recursive factorization which generalizes the usual Markov factorization for DAGs and the more recent factorization for ADMGs. Our algorithm can be viewed as a generalization of variable elimination to the mixed graph case. We show our algorithm is exponential in the mixed graph generalization of treewidth.

Causal models communicate our assumptions about causes and effects in real-world phe- nomena. Often the interest lies in the identification of the effect of an action which means deriving an expression from the observed probability distribution for the interventional distribution resulting from the action. In many cases an identifiability algorithm may return a complicated expression that contains variables that are in fact unnecessary. In practice this can lead to additional computational burden and increased bias or inefficiency of estimates when dealing with measurement error or missing data. We present graphical criteria to detect variables which are redundant in identifying causal effects. We also provide an improved version of a well-known identifiability algorithm that implements these criteria.