Information Regularization with Partially Labeled Data

Neural Information Processing Systems

Classification with partially labeled data requires using a large number of unlabeled examples (or an estimated marginal P (x)), to further constrain theconditional P (y x) beyond a few available labeled examples. We formulate a regularization approach to linking the marginal and the conditional in a general way. The regularization penalty measures the information that is implied about the labels over covering regions. No parametric assumptions are required and the approach remains tractable even for continuous marginal densities P (x). We develop algorithms for solving the regularization problem for finite covers, establish a limiting differential equation, and exemplify the behavior of the new regularization approachin simple cases.

On the Inductive Bias of Dropout Artificial Intelligence

Dropout is a simple but effective technique for learning in neural networks and other settings. A sound theoretical understanding of dropout is needed to determine when dropout should be applied and how to use it most effectively. In this paper we continue the exploration of dropout as a regularizer pioneered by Wager, We focus on linear classification where a convex proxy to the misclassification loss (i.e. the logistic loss used in logistic regression) is minimized. We show: (a) when the dropout-regularized criterion has a unique minimizer, (b) when the dropout-regularization penalty goes to infinity with the weights, and when it remains bounded, (c) that the dropout regularization can be non-monotonic as individual weights increase from 0, and (d) that the dropout regularization penalty may not be convex. This last point is particularly surprising because the combination of dropout regularization with any convex loss proxy is always a convex function. In order to contrast dropout regularization with $L_2$ regularization, we formalize the notion of when different sources are more compatible with different regularizers. We then exhibit distributions that are provably more compatible with dropout regularization than $L_2$ regularization, and vice versa. These sources provide additional insight into how the inductive biases of dropout and $L_2$ regularization differ. We provide some similar results for $L_1$ regularization.

On the Equivalence of Factorized Information Criterion Regularization and the Chinese Restaurant Process Prior Machine Learning

Factorized Information Criterion (FIC) is a recently developed information criterion, based on which a novel model selection methodology, namely Factorized Asymptotic Bayesian (FAB) Inference, has been developed and successfully applied to various hierarchical Bayesian models. The Dirichlet Process (DP) prior, and one of its well known representations, the Chinese Restaurant Process (CRP), derive another line of model selection methods. FIC can be viewed as a prior distribution over the latent variable configurations. Under this view, we prove that when the parameter dimensionality $D_{c}=2$, FIC is equivalent to CRP. We argue that when $D_{c}>2$, FIC avoids an inherent problem of DP/CRP, i.e. the data likelihood will dominate the impact of the prior, and thus the model selection capability will weaken as $D_{c}$ increases. However, FIC overestimates the data likelihood. As a result, FIC may be overly biased towards models with less components. We propose a natural generalization of FIC, which finds a middle ground between CRP and FIC, and may yield more accurate model selection results than FIC.

Less is More: Nyström Computational Regularization

Neural Information Processing Systems

We study Nyström type subsampling approaches to large scale kernel methods, and prove learning bounds in the statistical learning setting, where random sampling andhigh probability estimates are considered. In particular, we prove that these approaches can achieve optimal learning bounds, provided the subsampling level is suitably chosen. These results suggest a simple incremental variant of Nyström Kernel Regularized Least Squares, where the subsampling level implements aform of computational regularization, in the sense that it controls at the same time regularization and computations. Extensive experimental analysis showsthat the considered approach achieves state of the art performances on benchmark large scale datasets.

Spectral Regularization for Support Estimation

Neural Information Processing Systems

In this paper we consider the problem of learning from data the support of a probability distribution when the distribution {\em does not} have a density (with respect to some reference measure). We propose a new class of regularized spectral estimators based on a new notion of reproducing kernel Hilbert space, which we call {\em ``completely regular''}. Completely regular kernels allow to capture the relevant geometric and topological properties of an arbitrary probability space. In particular, they are the key ingredient to prove the universal consistency of the spectral estimators and in this respect they are the analogue of universal kernels for supervised problems. Numerical experiments show that spectral estimators compare favorably to state of the art machine learning algorithms for density support estimation.