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Nearly optimal exploration-exploitation decision thresholds

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

While in general trading off exploration and exploitation in reinforcement learning is hard, under some formulations relatively simple solutions exist. In this paper, we first derive upper bounds for the utility of selecting different actions in the multi-armed bandit setting. Unlike the common statistical upper confidence bounds, these explicitly link the planning horizon, uncertainty and the need for exploration explicit. The resulting algorithm can be seen as a generalisation of the classical Thompson sampling algorithm. We experimentally test these algorithms, as well as $\epsilon$-greedy and the value of perfect information heuristics. Finally, we also introduce the idea of bagging for reinforcement learning. By employing a version of online bootstrapping, we can efficiently sample from an approximate posterior distribution.


Linear Stochastic Bandits Under Safety Constraints

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Bandit algorithms have various application in safety-critical systems, where it is important to respect the system constraints that rely on the bandit's unknown parameters at every round. In this paper, we formulate a linear stochastic multi-armed bandit problem with safety constraints that depend (linearly) on an unknown parameter vector. As such, the learner is unable to identify all safe actions and must act conservatively in ensuring that her actions satisfy the safety constraint at all rounds (at least with high probability). For these bandits, we propose a new UCB-based algorithm called Safe-LUCB, which includes necessary modifications to respect safety constraints. The algorithm has two phases. During the pure exploration phase the learner chooses her actions at random from a restricted set of safe actions with the goal of learning a good approximation of the entire unknown safe set. Once this goal is achieved, the algorithm begins a safe exploration-exploitation phase where the learner gradually expands their estimate of the set of safe actions while controlling the growth of regret. We provide a general regret bound for the algorithm, as well as a problem dependent bound that is connected to the location of the optimal action within the safe set. We then propose a modified heuristic that exploits our problem dependent analysis to improve the regret.


A Lipschitz Exploration-Exploitation Scheme for Bayesian Optimization

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The problem of optimizing unknown costly-to-evaluate functions has been studied for a long time in the context of Bayesian Optimization. Algorithms in this field aim to find the optimizer of the function by asking only a few function evaluations at locations carefully selected based on a posterior model. In this paper, we assume the unknown function is Lipschitz continuous. Leveraging the Lipschitz property, we propose an algorithm with a distinct exploration phase followed by an exploitation phase. The exploration phase aims to select samples that shrink the search space as much as possible. The exploitation phase then focuses on the reduced search space and selects samples closest to the optimizer. Considering the Expected Improvement (EI) as a baseline, we empirically show that the proposed algorithm significantly outperforms EI.


Near Optimal Exploration-Exploitation in Non-Communicating Markov Decision Processes

Neural Information Processing Systems

While designing the state space of an MDP, it is common to include states that are transient or not reachable by any policy (e.g., in mountain car, the product space of speed and position contains configurations that are not physically reachable). In this paper, we introduce TUCRL, the first algorithm able to perform efficient exploration-exploitation in any finite Markov Decision Process (MDP) without requiring any form of prior knowledge. In particular, for any MDP with $S c$ communicating states, $A$ actions and $\Gamma c \leq S c$ possible communicating next states, we derive a $O(D c \sqrt{\Gamma c S c A T}) regret bound, where $D c$ is the diameter (i.e., the length of the longest shortest path between any two states) of the communicating part of the MDP. This is in contrast with optimistic algorithms (e.g., UCRL, Optimistic PSRL) that suffer linear regret in weakly-communicating MDPs, as well as posterior sampling or regularised algorithms (e.g., REGAL), which require prior knowledge on the bias span of the optimal policy to bias the exploration to achieve sub-linear regret. We also prove that in weakly-communicating MDPs, no algorithm can ever achieve a logarithmic growth of the regret without first suffering a linear regret for a number of steps that is exponential in the parameters of the MDP.


Adaptive Exploration-Exploitation Tradeoff for Opportunistic Bandits

arXiv.org Machine Learning

In this paper, we propose and study opportunistic bandits - a new variant of bandits where the regret of pulling a suboptimal arm varies under different environmental conditions, such as network load or produce price. When the load/price is low, so is the cost/regret of pulling a suboptimal arm (e.g., trying a suboptimal network configuration). Therefore, intuitively, we could explore more when the load is low and exploit more when the load is high. Inspired by this intuition, we propose an Adaptive Upper-Confidence-Bound (AdaUCB) algorithm to adaptively balance the exploration-exploitation tradeoff for opportunistic bandits. We prove that AdaUCB achieves $O(\log T)$ regret with a smaller coefficient than the traditional UCB algorithm. Furthermore, AdaUCB achieves $O(1)$ regret when the exploration cost is zero if the load level is below a certain threshold. Last, based on both synthetic data and real-world traces, experimental results show that AdaUCB significantly outperforms other bandit algorithms, such as UCB and TS (Thompson Sampling), under large load fluctuations.