This paper presents a general vector-valued reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces (RKHS) framework for the problem of learning an unknown functional dependency between a structured input space and a structured output space. Our formulation encompasses both Vector-valued Manifold Regularization and Co-regularized Multi-view Learning, providing in particular a unifying framework linking these two important learning approaches. In the case of the least square loss function, we provide a closed form solution, which is obtained by solving a system of linear equations. In the case of Support Vector Machine (SVM) classification, our formulation generalizes in particular both the binary Laplacian SVM to the multi-class, multi-view settings and the multi-class Simplex Cone SVM to the semi-supervised, multi-view settings. The solution is obtained by solving a single quadratic optimization problem, as in standard SVM, via the Sequential Minimal Optimization (SMO) approach. Empirical results obtained on the task of object recognition, using several challenging datasets, demonstrate the competitiveness of our algorithms compared with other state-of-the-art methods.
The representer theorem is a property that lies at the foundation of regularization theory and kernel methods. A class of regularization functionals is said to admit a linear representer theorem if every member of the class admits minimizers that lie in the finite dimensional subspace spanned by the representers of the data. A recent characterization states that certain classes of regularization functionals with differentiable regularization term admit a linear representer theorem for any choice of the data if and only if the regularization term is a radial nondecreasing function. In this paper, we extend such result by weakening the assumptions on the regularization term. In particular, the main result of this paper implies that, for a sufficiently large family of regularization functionals, radial nondecreasing functions are the only lower semicontinuous regularization terms that guarantee existence of a representer theorem for any choice of the data.
In this paper, we give a new generalization error bound of Multiple Kernel Learning (MKL) for a general class of regularizations. Our main target in this paper is dense type regularizations including ℓp-MKL that imposes ℓp-mixed-norm regularization instead of ℓ1-mixed-norm regularization. According to the recent numerical experiments, the sparse regularization does not necessarily show a good performance compared with dense type regularizations. Motivated by this fact, this paper gives a general theoretical tool to derive fast learning rates that is applicable to arbitrary monotone norm-type regularizations in a unifying manner. As a by-product of our general result, we show a fast learning rate of ℓp-MKL that is tightest among existing bounds. We also show that our general learning rate achieves the minimax lower bound. Finally, we show that, when the complexities of candidate reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces are inhomogeneous, dense type regularization shows better learning rate compared with sparse ℓ1 regularization.