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Exploring Partially Observed Networks with Nonparametric Bandits

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Real-world networks such as social and communication networks are too large to be observed entirely. Such networks are often partially observed such that network size, network topology, and nodes of the original network are unknown. In this paper we formalize the Adaptive Graph Exploring problem. We assume that we are given an incomplete snapshot of a large network and additional nodes can be discovered by querying nodes in the currently observed network. The goal of this problem is to maximize the number of observed nodes within a given query budget. Querying which set of nodes maximizes the size of the observed network? We formulate this problem as an exploration-exploitation problem and propose a novel nonparametric multi-arm bandit (MAB) algorithm for identifying which nodes to be queried. Our contributions include: (1) $i$KNN-UCB, a novel nonparametric MAB algorithm, applies $k$-nearest neighbor UCB to the setting when the arms are presented in a vector space, (2) provide theoretical guarantee that $i$KNN-UCB algorithm has sublinear regret, and (3) applying $i$KNN-UCB algorithm on synthetic networks and real-world networks from different domains, we show that our method discovers up to 40% more nodes compared to existing baselines.


Feature extraction and similar image search with OpenCV for newbies

#artificialintelligence

Image features For this task, first of all, we need to understand what is an Image Feature and how we can use it. Image feature is a simple image pattern, based on which we can describe what we see on the image. For example cat eye will be a feature on a image of a cat. The main role of features in computer vision(and not only) is to transform visual information into the vector space. Ok, but how to get this features from the image?


Feature vector regularization in machine learning

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Problems in machine learning (ML) can involve noisy input data, and ML classification methods have reached limiting accuracies when based on standard ML data sets consisting of feature vectors and their classes. Greater accuracy will require incorporation of prior structural information on data into learning. We study methods to regularize feature vectors (unsupervised regularization methods), analogous to supervised regularization for estimating functions in ML. We study regularization (denoising) of ML feature vectors using Tikhonov and other regularization methods for functions on ${\bf R}^n$. A feature vector ${\bf x}=(x_1,\ldots,x_n)=\{x_q\}_{q=1}^n$ is viewed as a function of its index $q$, and smoothed using prior information on its structure. This can involve a penalty functional on feature vectors analogous to those in statistical learning, or use of proximity (e.g. graph) structure on the set of indices. Such feature vector regularization inherits a property from function denoising on ${\bf R}^n$, in that accuracy is non-monotonic in the denoising (regularization) parameter $\alpha$. Under some assumptions about the noise level and the data structure, we show that the best reconstruction accuracy also occurs at a finite positive $\alpha$ in index spaces with graph structures. We adapt two standard function denoising methods used on ${\bf R}^n$, local averaging and kernel regression. In general the index space can be any discrete set with a notion of proximity, e.g. a metric space, a subset of ${\bf R}^n$, or a graph/network, with feature vectors as functions with some notion of continuity. We show this improves feature vector recovery, and thus the subsequent classification or regression done on them. We give an example in gene expression analysis for cancer classification with the genome as an index space and network structure based protein-protein interactions.


Survey Bandits with Regret Guarantees

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We consider a variant of the contextual bandit problem. In standard contextual bandits, when a user arrives we get the user's complete feature vector and then assign a treatment (arm) to that user. In a number of applications (like healthcare), collecting features from users can be costly. To address this issue, we propose algorithms that avoid needless feature collection while maintaining strong regret guarantees.


Nonparametric Contextual Bandits in an Unknown Metric Space

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Consider a nonparametric contextual multi-arm bandit problem where each arm $a \in [K]$ is associated to a nonparametric reward function $f_a: [0,1] \to \mathbb{R}$ mapping from contexts to the expected reward. Suppose that there is a large set of arms, yet there is a simple but unknown structure amongst the arm reward functions, e.g. finite types or smooth with respect to an unknown metric space. We present a novel algorithm which learns data-driven similarities amongst the arms, in order to implement adaptive partitioning of the context-arm space for more efficient learning. We provide regret bounds along with simulations that highlight the algorithm's dependence on the local geometry of the reward functions.