Layer-Wise Coordination between Encoder and Decoder for Neural Machine Translation

Neural Information Processing Systems

Neural Machine Translation (NMT) has achieved remarkable progress with the quick evolvement of model structures. In this paper, we propose the concept of layer-wise coordination for NMT, which explicitly coordinates the learning of hidden representations of the encoder and decoder together layer by layer, gradually from low level to high level. Specifically, we design a layer-wise attention and mixed attention mechanism, and further share the parameters of each layer between the encoder and decoder to regularize and coordinate the learning. Experiments show that combined with the state-of-the-art Transformer model, layer-wise coordination achieves improvements on three IWSLT and two WMT translation tasks. More specifically, our method achieves 34.43 and 29.01 BLEU score on WMT16 English-Romanian and WMT14 English-German tasks, outperforming the Transformer baseline.

Non-Autoregressive Machine Translation with Auxiliary Regularization Machine Learning

As a new neural machine translation approach, Non-Autoregressive machine Translation (NAT) has attracted attention recently due to its high efficiency in inference. However, the high efficiency has come at the cost of not capturing the sequential dependency on the target side of translation, which causes NAT to suffer from two kinds of translation errors: 1) repeated translations (due to indistinguishable adjacent decoder hidden states), and 2) incomplete translations (due to incomplete transfer of source side information via the decoder hidden states). In this paper, we propose to address these two problems by improving the quality of decoder hidden representations via two auxiliary regularization terms in the training process of an NAT model. First, to make the hidden states more distinguishable, we regularize the similarity between consecutive hidden states based on the corresponding target tokens. Second, to force the hidden states to contain all the information in the source sentence, we leverage the dual nature of translation tasks (e.g., English to German and German to English) and minimize a backward reconstruction error to ensure that the hidden states of the NAT decoder are able to recover the source side sentence. Extensive experiments conducted on several benchmark datasets show that both regularization strategies are effective and can alleviate the issues of repeated translations and incomplete translations in NAT models. The accuracy of NAT models is therefore improved significantly over the state-of-the-art NAT models with even better efficiency for inference.

Syntax-Infused Transformer and BERT models for Machine Translation and Natural Language Understanding Machine Learning

Attention-based models have shown significant improvement over traditional algorithms in several NLP tasks. The Transformer, for instance, is an illustrative example that generates abstract representations of tokens inputted to an encoder based on their relationships to all tokens in a sequence. Recent studies have shown that although such models are capable of learning syntactic features purely by seeing examples, explicitly feeding this information to deep learning models can significantly enhance their performance. Leveraging syntactic information like part of speech (POS) may be particularly beneficial in limited training data settings for complex models such as the Transformer. We show that the syntax-infused Transformer with multiple features achieves an improvement of 0.7 BLEU when trained on the full WMT '14 English to German translation dataset and a maximum improvement of 1.99 BLEU points when trained on a fraction of the dataset. In addition, we find that the incorporation of syntax into BERT fine-tuning outperforms baseline on a number of downstream tasks from the GLUE benchmark. Introduction Attention-based deep learning models for natural language processing (NLP) have shown promise for a variety of machine translation and natural language understanding tasks. For word-level, sequence-to-sequence tasks such as translation, paraphrasing, and text summarization, attention-based models allow a single token ( e.g., a word or subword) in a sequence to be represented as a combination of all tokens in the sequence (Luong, Pham, and Manning, 2015).

Attention is All you Need

Neural Information Processing Systems

The dominant sequence transduction models are based on complex recurrent or convolutional neural networks that include an encoder and a decoder. The best performing models also connect the encoder and decoder through an attention mechanism. We propose a new simple network architecture, the Transformer, based solely on attention mechanisms, dispensing with recurrence and convolutions entirely. Experiments on two machine translation tasks show these models to be superior in quality while being more parallelizable and requiring significantly less time to train. Our model achieves 28.4 BLEU on the WMT 2014 Englishto-German translationtask, improving over the existing best results, including ensembles, by over 2 BLEU. On the WMT 2014 English-to-French translation task, our model establishes a new single-model state-of-the-art BLEU score of 41.0 after training for 3.5 days on eight GPUs, a small fraction of the training costs of the best models from the literature.

Sequence Generation: From Both Sides to the Middle Artificial Intelligence

The encoder-decoder framework has achieved promising process for many sequence generation tasks, such as neural machine translation and text summarization. Such a framework usually generates a sequence token by token from left to right, hence (1) this autoregressive decoding procedure is time-consuming when the output sentence becomes longer, and (2) it lacks the guidance of future context which is crucial to avoid under translation. To alleviate these issues, we propose a synchronous bidirectional sequence generation (SBSG) model which predicts its outputs from both sides to the middle simultaneously. In the SBSG model, we enable the left-to-right (L2R) and right-to-left (R2L) generation to help and interact with each other by leveraging interactive bidirectional attention network. Experiments on neural machine translation (En-De, Ch-En, and En-Ro) and text summarization tasks show that the proposed model significantly speeds up decoding while improving the generation quality compared to the autoregressive Transformer.