Learning Plannable Representations with Causal InfoGAN

Neural Information Processing Systems

In recent years, deep generative models have been shown to 'imagine' convincing high-dimensional observations such as images, audio, and even video, learning directly from raw data. In this work, we ask how to imagine goal-directed visual plans -- a plausible sequence of observations that transition a dynamical system from its current configuration to a desired goal state, which can later be used as a reference trajectory for control. We focus on systems with high-dimensional observations, such as images, and propose an approach that naturally combines representation learning and planning. Our framework learns a generative model of sequential observations, where the generative process is induced by a transition in a low-dimensional planning model, and an additional noise. By maximizing the mutual information between the generated observations and the transition in the planning model, we obtain a low-dimensional representation that best explains the causal nature of the data. We structure the planning model to be compatible with efficient planning algorithms, and we propose several such models based on either discrete or continuous states. Finally, to generate a visual plan, we project the current and goal observations onto their respective states in the planning model, plan a trajectory, and then use the generative model to transform the trajectory to a sequence of observations. We demonstrate our method on imagining plausible visual plans of rope manipulation.


Learning Plannable Representations with Causal InfoGAN

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In recent years, deep generative models have been shown to 'imagine' convincing high-dimensional observations such as images, audio, and even video, learning directly from raw data. In this work, we ask how to imagine goal-directed visual plans -- a plausible sequence of observations that transition a dynamical system from its current configuration to a desired goal state, which can later be used as a reference trajectory for control. We focus on systems with high-dimensional observations, such as images, and propose an approach that naturally combines representation learning and planning. Our framework learns a generative model of sequential observations, where the generative process is induced by a transition in a low-dimensional planning model, and an additional noise. By maximizing the mutual information between the generated observations and the transition in the planning model, we obtain a low-dimensional representation that best explains the causal nature of the data. We structure the planning model to be compatible with efficient planning algorithms, and we propose several such models based on either discrete or continuous states. Finally, to generate a visual plan, we project the current and goal observations onto their respective states in the planning model, plan a trajectory, and then use the generative model to transform the trajectory to a sequence of observations. We demonstrate our method on imagining plausible visual plans of rope manipulation.


InfoGAIL: Interpretable Imitation Learning from Visual Demonstrations

Neural Information Processing Systems

The goal of imitation learning is to mimic expert behavior without access to an explicit reward signal. Expert demonstrations provided by humans, however, often show significant variability due to latent factors that are typically not explicitly modeled. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm that can infer the latent structure of expert demonstrations in an unsupervised way. Our method, built on top of Generative Adversarial Imitation Learning, can not only imitate complex behaviors, but also learn interpretable and meaningful representations of complex behavioral data, including visual demonstrations. In the driving domain, we show that a model learned from human demonstrations is able to both accurately reproduce a variety of behaviors and accurately anticipate human actions using raw visual inputs. Compared with various baselines, our method can better capture the latent structure underlying expert demonstrations, often recovering semantically meaningful factors of variation in the data.


InfoGAN: Interpretable Representation Learning by Information Maximizing Generative Adversarial Nets

Neural Information Processing Systems

This paper describes InfoGAN, an information-theoretic extension to the Generative Adversarial Network that is able to learn disentangled representations in a completely unsupervised manner. InfoGAN is a generative adversarial network that also maximizes the mutual information between a small subset of the latent variables and the observation. We derive a lower bound to the mutual information objective that can be optimized efficiently, and show that our training procedure can be interpreted as a variation of the Wake-Sleep algorithm. Specifically, InfoGAN successfully disentangles writing styles from digit shapes on the MNIST dataset, pose from lighting of 3D rendered images, and background digits from the central digit on the SVHN dataset. It also discovers visual concepts that include hair styles, presence/absence of eyeglasses, and emotions on the CelebA face dataset. Experiments show that InfoGAN learns interpretable representations that are competitive with representations learned by existing fully supervised methods.


Inverse reinforcement learning for video games

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Deep reinforcement learning achieves superhuman performance in a range of video game environments, but requires that a designer manually specify a reward function. It is often easier to provide demonstrations of a target behavior than to design a reward function describing that behavior. Inverse reinforcement learning (IRL) algorithms can infer a reward from demonstrations in low-dimensional continuous control environments, but there has been little work on applying IRL to high-dimensional video games. In our CNN-AIRL baseline, we modify the state-of-the-art adversarial IRL (AIRL) algorithm to use CNNs for the generator and discriminator. To stabilize training, we normalize the reward and increase the size of the discriminator training dataset. We additionally learn a low-dimensional state representation using a novel autoencoder architecture tuned for video game environments. This embedding is used as input to the reward network, improving the sample efficiency of expert demonstrations. Our method achieves high-level performance on the simple Catcher video game, substantially outperforming the CNN-AIRL baseline. We also score points on the Enduro Atari racing game, but do not match expert performance, highlighting the need for further work.