When working with network datasets, the theoretical framework of detection theory for Euclidean vector spaces no longer applies. Nevertheless, it is desirable to determine the detectability of small, anomalous graphs embedded into background networks with known statistical properties. Casting the problem of subgraph detection in a signal processing context, this article provides a framework and empirical results that elucidate a detection theory" for graph-valued data. Its focus is the detection of anomalies in unweighted, undirected graphs through L1 properties of the eigenvectors of the graph's so-called modularity matrix. This metric is observed to have relatively low variance for certain categories of randomly-generated graphs, and to reveal the presence of an anomalous subgraph with reasonable reliability when the anomaly is not well-correlated with stronger portions of the background graph. An analysis of subgraphs in real network datasets confirms the efficacy of this approach."
A wide variety of application domains are concerned with data consisting of entities and their relationships or connections, formally represented as graphs. Within these diverse application areas, a common problem of interest is the detection of a subset of entities whose connectivity is anomalous with respect to the rest of the data. While the detection of such anomalous subgraphs has received a substantial amount of attention, no application-agnostic framework exists for analysis of signal detectability in graph-based data. In this paper, we describe a framework that enables such analysis using the principal eigenspace of a graph's residuals matrix, commonly called the modularity matrix in community detection. Leveraging this analytical tool, we show that the framework has a natural power metric in the spectral norm of the anomalous subgraph's adjacency matrix (signal power) and of the background graph's residuals matrix (noise power). We propose several algorithms based on spectral properties of the residuals matrix, with more computationally expensive techniques providing greater detection power. Detection and identification performance are presented for a number of signal and noise models, including clusters and bipartite foregrounds embedded into simple random backgrounds as well as graphs with community structure and realistic degree distributions. The trends observed verify intuition gleaned from other signal processing areas, such as greater detection power when the signal is embedded within a less active portion of the background. We demonstrate the utility of the proposed techniques in detecting small, highly anomalous subgraphs in real graphs derived from Internet traffic and product co-purchases.
Receiver algorithms which combine belief propagation (BP) with the mean field (MF) approximation are well-suited for inference of both continuous and discrete random variables. In wireless scenarios involving detection of multiple signals, the standard construction of the combined BP-MF framework includes the equalization or multi-user detection functions within the MF subgraph. In this paper, we show that the MF approximation is not particularly effective for multi-signal detection. We develop a new factor graph construction for application of the BP-MF framework to problems involving the detection of multiple signals. We then develop a low-complexity variant to the proposed construction in which Gaussian BP is applied to the equalization factors. In this case, the factor graph of the joint probability distribution is divided into three subgraphs: (i) a MF subgraph comprised of the observation factors and channel estimation, (ii) a Gaussian BP subgraph which is applied to multi-signal detection, and (iii) a discrete BP subgraph which is applied to demodulation and decoding. Expectation propagation is used to approximate discrete distributions with a Gaussian distribution and links the discrete BP and Gaussian BP subgraphs. The result is a probabilistic receiver architecture with strong theoretical justification which can be applied to multi-signal detection.
Wu, Nannan (Beihang University) | Chen, Feng (State University of New York, Albany) | Li, Jianxin (Beihang University) | Zhou, Baojian (State University of New York, Albany) | Ramakrishnan, Naren (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University)
Non-parametric graph scan (NPGS) statistics are used to detect anomalous connected subgraphs on graphs, and have a wide variety of applications, such as disease outbreak detection, road traffic congestion detection, and event detection in social media. In contrast to traditional parametric scan statistics (e.g., the Kulldorff statistic), NPGS statistics are free of distributional assumptions and can be applied to heterogeneous graph data. In this paper, we make a number of contributions to the computational study of NPGS statistics. First, we present a novel reformulation of the problem as a sequence of Budget Price-Collecting Steiner Tree (B-PCST) sub-problems. Second, we show that this reformulated problem is NP-hard for a large class of nonparametric statistic functions. Third, we further develop efficient exact and approximate algorithms for a special category of graphs in which the anomalous subgraphs can be reformulated in a fixed tree topology. Finally, using extensive experiments we demonstrate the performance of our proposed algorithms in two real-world application domains (water pollution detection in water sensor networks and spatial event detection in social media networks) and contrast against state-of-the-art connected subgraph detection methods.
Multi-robot path planning is difficult due to the combinatorial explosion of the search space with every new robot added. Complete search of the combined state-space soon becomes intractable. In this paper we present a novel form of abstraction that allows us to plan much more efficiently. The key to this abstraction is the partitioning of the map into subgraphs of known structure with entry and exit restrictions which we can represent compactly. Planning then becomes a search in the much smaller space of subgraph configurations. Once an abstract plan is found, it can be quickly resolved into a correct (but possibly sub-optimal) concrete plan without the need for further search. We prove that this technique is sound and complete and demonstrate its practical effectiveness on a real map. A contending solution, prioritised planning, is also evaluated and shown to have similar performance albeit at the cost of completeness. The two approaches are not necessarily conflicting; we demonstrate how they can be combined into a single algorithm which outperforms either approach alone.