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An Alternative Markov Property for Chain Graphs

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Graphical Markov models use graphs, either undirected, directed, or mixed, to represent possible dependences among statistical variables. Applications of undirected graphs (UDGs) include models for spatial dependence and image analysis, while acyclic directed graphs (ADGs), which are especially convenient for statistical analysis, arise in such fields as genetics and psychometrics and as models for expert systems and Bayesian belief networks. Lauritzen, Wermuth and Frydenberg (LWF) introduced a Markov property for chain graphs, which are mixed graphs that can be used to represent simultaneously both causal and associative dependencies and which include both UDGs and ADGs as special cases. In this paper an alternative Markov property (AMP) for chain graphs is introduced, which in some ways is a more direct extension of the ADG Markov property than is the LWF property for chain graph.


On Sparse Gaussian Chain Graph Models

Neural Information Processing Systems

In this paper, we address the problem of learning the structure of Gaussian chain graph models in a high-dimensional space. Chain graph models are generalizations of undirected and directed graphical models that contain a mixed set of directed and undirected edges. While the problem of sparse structure learning has been studied extensively for Gaussian graphical models and more recently for conditional Gaussian graphical models (CGGMs), there has been little previous work on the structure recovery of Gaussian chain graph models. We consider linear regression models and a re-parameterization of the linear regression models using CGGMs as building blocks of chain graph models. We argue that when the goal is to recover model structures, there are many advantages of using CGGMs as chain component models over linear regression models, including convexity of the optimization problem, computational efficiency, recovery of structured sparsity, and ability to leverage the model structure for semi-supervised learning. We demonstrate our approach on simulated and genomic datasets.


Parameterizations and fitting of bi-directed graph models to categorical data

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We discuss two parameterizations of models for marginal independencies for discrete distributions which are representable by bi-directed graph models, under the global Markov property. Such models are useful data analytic tools especially if used in combination with other graphical models. The first parameterization, in the saturated case, is also known as the multivariate logistic transformation, the second is a variant that allows, in some (but not all) cases, variation independent parameters. An algorithm for maximum likelihood fitting is proposed, based on an extension of the Aitchison and Silvey method.


Markov Equivalence Classes for Maximal Ancestral Graphs

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Ancestral graphs are a class of graphs that encode conditional independence relations arising in DAG models with latent and selection variables, corresponding to marginalization and conditioning. However, for any ancestral graph, there may be several other graphs to which it is Markov equivalent. We introduce a simple representation of a Markov equivalence class of ancestral graphs, thereby facilitating model search. \ More specifically, we define a join operation on ancestral graphs which will associate a unique graph with a Markov equivalence class. We also extend the separation criterion for ancestral graphs (which is an extension of d-separation) and provide a proof of the pairwise Markov property for joined ancestral graphs.


Marginalization and Conditioning for LWF Chain Graphs

arXiv.org Machine Learning

In this paper, we deal with the problem of marginalization over and conditioning on two disjoint subsets of the node set of chain graphs (CGs) with the LWF Markov property. For this purpose, we define the class of chain mixed graphs (CMGs) with three types of edges and, for this class, provide a separation criterion under which the class of CMGs is stable under marginalization and conditioning and contains the class of LWF CGs as its subclass. We provide a method for generating such graphs after marginalization and conditioning for a given CMG or a given LWF CG. We then define and study the class of anterial graphs, which is also stable under marginalization and conditioning and contains LWF CGs, but has a simpler structure than CMGs.