Failure of Calibration is Typical

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Schervish (1985b) showed that every forecasting system is noncalibrated for uncountably many data sequences that it might see. This result is strengthened here: from a topological point of view, failure of calibration is typical and calibration rare. Meanwhile, Bayesian forecasters are certain that they are calibrated---this invites worries about the connection between Bayesianism and rationality.


Probabilistic Forecasting and Simulation of Electricity Markets via Online Dictionary Learning

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The problem of probabilistic forecasting and online simulation of real-time electricity market with stochastic generation and demand is considered. By exploiting the parametric structure of the direct current optimal power flow, a new technique based on online dictionary learning (ODL) is proposed. The ODL approach incorporates real-time measurements and historical traces to produce forecasts of joint and marginal probability distributions of future locational marginal prices, power flows, and dispatch levels, conditional on the system state at the time of forecasting. Compared with standard Monte Carlo simulation techniques, the ODL approach offers several orders of magnitude improvement in computation time, making it feasible for online forecasting of market operations. Numerical simulations on large and moderate size power systems illustrate its performance and complexity features and its potential as a tool for system operators.


Crop yield probability density forecasting via quantile random forest and Epanechnikov Kernel function

arXiv.org Machine Learning

A reliable and accurate forecasting method for crop yields is very important for the farmer, the economy of a country, and the agricultural stakeholders. However, due to weather extremes and uncertainties as a result of increasing climate change, most crop yield forecasting models are not reliable and accurate. In this paper, a hybrid crop yield probability density forecasting method via quantile regression forest and Epanechnikov kernel function (QRF-SJ) is proposed to capture the uncertainties and extremes of weather in crop yield forecasting. By assigning probability to possible crop yield values, probability density forecast gives a complete description of the yield of crops. A case study using the annual crop yield of groundnut and millet in Ghana is presented to illustrate the efficiency and robustness of the proposed technique. The proposed model is able to capture the nonlinearity between crop yield and the weather variables via random forest. The values of prediction interval coverage probability and prediction interval normalized average width for the two crops show that the constructed prediction intervals cover the target values with perfect probability. The probability density curves show that QRF-SJ method has a very high ability to forecast quality prediction intervals with a higher coverage probability. The feature importance gave a score of the importance of each weather variable in building the quantile regression forest model. The farmer and other stakeholders are able to realize the specific weather variable that affect the yield of a selected crop through feature importance. The proposed method and its application on crop yield dataset is the first of its kind in literature.


Coordinates: Probabilistic Forecasting of Presence and Availability

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We present methods employed in Coordinate, a prototype service that supports collaboration and communication by learning predictive models that provide forecasts of users s AND availability.We describe how data IS collected about USER activity AND proximity FROM multiple devices, IN addition TO analysis OF the content OF users, the time of day, and day of week. We review applications of presence forecasting embedded in the Priorities application and then present details of the Coordinate service that was informed by the earlier efforts.


Back to square one: probabilistic trajectory forecasting without bells and whistles

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We introduce a spatio-temporal convolutional neural network model for trajectory forecasting from visual sources. Applied in an auto-regressive way it provides an explicit probability distribution over continuations of a given initial trajectory segment. We discuss it in relation to (more complicated) existing work and report on experiments on two standard datasets for trajectory forecasting: MNISTseq and Stanford Drones, achieving results on-par with or better than previous methods.