Self-driving Autonomous Vehicles (SAVs) are gaining more interest each passing day by the industry as well as the general public. Tech and automobile companies are investing huge amounts of capital in research and development of SAVs to make sure they have a head start in the SAV market in the future. One of the major hurdles in the way of SAVs making it to the public roads is the lack of confidence of public in the safety aspect of SAVs. In order to assure safety and provide confidence to the public in the safety of SAVs, researchers around the world have used coverage-based testing for Verification and Validation (V&V) and safety assurance of SAVs. The objective of this paper is to investigate the coverage criteria proposed and coverage maximizing techniques used by researchers in the last decade up till now, to assure safety of SAVs. We conduct a Systematic Literature Review (SLR) for this investigation in our paper. We present a classification of existing research based on the coverage criteria used. Several research gaps and research directions are also provided in this SLR to enable further research in this domain. This paper provides a body of knowledge in the domain of safety assurance of SAVs. We believe the results of this SLR will be helpful in the progression of V&V and safety assurance of SAVs.
In this paper, we consider the inclusion-exclusion rule – a known yet seldom used rule of probabilistic inference. Unlike the widely used sum rule which requires easy access to all joint probability values, the inclusion-exclusion rule requires easy access to several marginal probability values. We therefore develop a new representation of the joint distribution that is amenable to the inclusion-exclusion rule. We compare the relative strengths and weaknesses of the inclusion-exclusion rule with the sum rule and develop a hybrid rule called the inclusion- exclusion-sum (IES) rule, which combines their power. We apply the IES rule to junction trees, treating the latter as a target for knowledge compilation and show that in many cases it greatly reduces the time required to answer queries. Our experiments demonstrate the power of our approach. In particular, at query time, on several networks, our new scheme was an order of magnitude faster than the junction tree algorithm.
Driven by mobile, there have been $300-million in monthly transactions in Africa from 7.2-million new people using digital financial services and 45,000 new banking agents due to a financial inclusion project. The Partnership for Financial Inclusion program, run by the IFC and the Mastercard Foundation, has been operating since 2012 and has been working with 14 microfinance institutions, banks, mobile network operators, and payments service providers across the continent. In general, according to the recently published World Bank Findex survey, financial inclusion in Sub-Saharan Africa has "increased dramatically" from 23% in 2011 to 43% in 2017. The 7.2-million new digital finance users are a 250% increase from the 2012 baseline, the organisations said in a statement. "Saharan Africa is the only region where the share of adults with a mobile money account exceeds 10 percent".
Leveraging technology to drive micro finance plans in Nigeria As the pension and insurance sectors of the economy aggressively begin the process of enhancing their services to meet the 40% financial inclusion target by 2020, experts are rooting for various strategies to achieve the goal. The overall target of the revised strategy is to reduce the percentage of adult Nigerians excluded from access to financial services from 46.3% in 2010 to 20% by 2020, representing a target of 80% inclusion. Afghanistan Launches Its National Financial Inclusion Strategy In the last 18 months, Da Afghanistan Bank led the National Financial Inclusion Strategy, which aims to increase access to finance in critical areas of the Afghan economy and promote formal financial services for households and the private sector, including digital payments and services. Novel Bond Aims To Boost Livelihoods Of Women In South And Southeast Asia Low-income women in South and Southeast Asia face a series of seemingly insurmountable obstacles. Few have a formal bank account.