Artificial intelligence (AI) is a technology which is increasingly being utilised in society and the economy worldwide, and its implementation is planned to become more prevalent in coming years. AI is increasingly being embedded in our lives, supplementing our pervasive use of digital technologies. But this is being accompanied by disquiet over problematic and dangerous implementations of AI, or indeed, even AI itself deciding to do dangerous and problematic actions, especially in fields such as the military, medicine and criminal justice. These developments have led to concerns about whether and how AI systems adhere, and will adhere to ethical standards. These concerns have stimulated a global conversation on AI ethics, and have resulted in various actors from different countries and sectors issuing ethics and governance initiatives and guidelines for AI. Such developments form the basis for our research in this report, combining our international and interdisciplinary expertise to give an insight into what is happening in Australia, China, Europe, India and the US.
The Australian Government released its artificial intelligence (AI) technology roadmap during Australia's inaugural AI summit Techtonic, held recently in Canberra. As reported, 'Artificial Intelligence: Solving problems, growing the economy and improving our quality of life' was developed by CSIRO, Australia's national science agency. The roadmap outlines the importance of action for Australia to capture the benefits of AI, which is estimated to be worth AU$ 22.17 trillion to the global economy by 2030. It was developed for the Australian Government in consultation with industry, government and academia. The roadmap is intended to help guide future investment in AI and machine learning, and accompanies Artificial Intelligence: Australia's Ethics Framework, a discussion paper prepared by CSIRO's Data61 and published by the Australian Government in April 2019.
As artificial intelligence (AI) systems become increasingly complex and ubiquitous, these systems will be responsible for making decisions that directly affect individuals and society as a whole. Such decisions will need to be justified due to ethical concerns as well as trust, but achieving this has become difficult due to the `black-box' nature many AI models have adopted. Explainable AI (XAI) can potentially address this problem by explaining its actions, decisions and behaviours of the system to users. However, much research in XAI is done in a vacuum using only the researchers' intuition of what constitutes a `good' explanation while ignoring the interaction and the human aspect. This workshop invites researchers in the HCI community and related fields to have a discourse about human-centred approaches to XAI rooted in interaction and to shed light and spark discussion on interaction design challenges in XAI.
The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) has made AU$35 million available for research into new and emerging technologies. According to CSIRO, the funding will be available specifically for use in the areas of space technology and artificial intelligence, including on the development of advanced imaging of Earth from satellites and data science through AI and machine learning. With AU$16 million invested, the space technology segment will be charged with identifying and developing "science to leapfrog traditional technologies" and find new areas Australia can focus on. CSIRO said it will initially focus on advanced technologies for Earth observation, and then address challenges such as space object tracking, resource utilisation in space, and developing manufacturing and life support systems for missions to the Moon and Mars. AU$19 million will be used to target AI-driven solutions for areas including food security and quality, health and wellbeing, sustainable energy and resources, resilient and valuable environments, and Australian and regional security, CSIRO explained.
Whether we know it or not, artificial intelligence (AI) is already steeped into everyday life. It's present in the way social media feeds are organised; the way predictive searches show up on Google; and how music services such as Spotify make song suggestions. The technology is also helping transform the way enterprises do business. Commonwealth Bank of Australia, for instance, has applied AI to analyse 200 billion data points to free up more time so its customer service officers can focus on doing exactly what their title suggests: servicing customers. As a result, the bank has seen a 400% uplift in customer engagement.