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Survey of Deep Reinforcement Learning for Motion Planning of Autonomous Vehicles

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Academic research in the field of autonomous vehicles has reached high popularity in recent years related to several topics as sensor technologies, V2X communications, safety, security, decision making, control, and even legal and standardization rules. Besides classic control design approaches, Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning methods are present in almost all of these fields. Another part of research focuses on different layers of Motion Planning, such as strategic decisions, trajectory planning, and control. A wide range of techniques in Machine Learning itself have been developed, and this article describes one of these fields, Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL). The paper provides insight into the hierarchical motion planning problem and describes the basics of DRL. The main elements of designing such a system are the modeling of the environment, the modeling abstractions, the description of the state and the perception models, the appropriate rewarding, and the realization of the underlying neural network. The paper describes vehicle models, simulation possibilities and computational requirements. Strategic decisions on different layers and the observation models, e.g., continuous and discrete state representations, grid-based, and camera-based solutions are presented. The paper surveys the state-of-art solutions systematized by the different tasks and levels of autonomous driving, such as car-following, lane-keeping, trajectory following, merging, or driving in dense traffic. Finally, open questions and future challenges are discussed.


IoT-Enabled Social Relationships Meet Artificial Social Intelligence

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

With the recent advances of the Internet of Things, and the increasing accessibility of ubiquitous computing resources and mobile devices, the prevalence of rich media contents, and the ensuing social, economic, and cultural changes, computing technology and applications have evolved quickly over the past decade. They now go beyond personal computing, facilitating collaboration and social interactions in general, causing a quick proliferation of social relationships among IoT entities. The increasing number of these relationships and their heterogeneous social features have led to computing and communication bottlenecks that prevent the IoT network from taking advantage of these relationships to improve the offered services and customize the delivered content, known as relationship explosion. On the other hand, the quick advances in artificial intelligence applications in social computing have led to the emerging of a promising research field known as Artificial Social Intelligence (ASI) that has the potential to tackle the social relationship explosion problem. This paper discusses the role of IoT in social relationships detection and management, the problem of social relationships explosion in IoT and reviews the proposed solutions using ASI, including social-oriented machine-learning and deep-learning techniques.


Novelty Detection and Learning from Extremely Weak Supervision

arXiv.org Machine Learning

In this paper we offer a method and algorithm, which make possible fully autonomous (unsupervised) detection of new classes, and learning following a very parsimonious training priming (few labeled data samples only). Moreover, new unknown classes may appear at a later stage and the proposed xClass method and algorithm are able to successfully discover this and learn from the data autonomously. Furthermore, the features (inputs to the classifier) are automatically sub-selected by the algorithm based on the accumulated data density per feature per class. As a result, a highly efficient, lean, human-understandable, autonomously self-learning model (which only needs an extremely parsimonious priming) emerges from the data. To validate our proposal we tested it on two challenging problems, including imbalanced Caltech-101 data set and iRoads dataset. Not only we achieved higher precision, but, more significantly, we only used a single class beforehand, while other methods used all the available classes) and we generated interpretable models with smaller number of features used, through extremely weak and weak supervision.


Safety of the Intended Driving Behavior Using Rulebooks

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Autonomous Vehicles (AVs) are complex systems that drive in uncertain environments and potentially navigate unforeseeable situations. Safety of these systems requires not only an absence of malfunctions but also high performance of functions in many different scenarios. The ISO/PAS 21448 [1] guidance recommends a process to ensure the Safety of the Intended Functionality (SOTIF) for road vehicles. This process starts with a functional specification that fully describes the intended functionality and further includes the verification and validation that the AV meets this specification. For the path planning function, defining the correct sequence of control actions for each vehicle in all potential driving situations is intractable. In this paper, the authors provide a link between the Rulebooks framework, presented by [2], and the SOTIF process. We establish that Rulebooks provide a functional description of the path planning task in an AV and discuss the potential usage of the method for verification and validation.


How do we build trustworthy AI-based Systems? – An interview with KIT Professor Ali Sunyaev – KIT Link

#artificialintelligence

Which economic sectors are likely to benefit the most from the introduction of AI-based Systems, and how is their introduction going to affect us? The introduction of AI-based systems will for sure have effects on virtually any economic sector – in some cases the effects will be tremendous. In fact, AI-based systems are already transforming several industries today, as we speak. Look at the automotive industry and the on-going shift to semi- or even fully autonomous cars. Some colleagues at KIT are doing genuinely groundbreaking research in this area.