CHICAGO --- Deep learning - a form of artificial intelligence - was able to detect malignant lung nodules on low-dose chest computed tomography (LDCT) scans with a performance meeting or exceeding that of expert radiologists, reports a new study from Google and Northwestern Medicine. This deep-learning system provides an automated image evaluation system to enhance the accuracy of early lung cancer diagnosis that could lead to earlier treatment. The deep-learning system was compared against radiologists on LDCTs for patients, some of whom had biopsy confirmed cancer within a year. In most comparisons, the model performed at or better than radiologists. Deep learning is a technique that teaches computers to learn by example.
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Early diagnosis of pulmonary nodules in Computed Tomography (CT) chest scans provides an opportunity for designing effective treatment and making financial and care plans. In this paper, we consider the problem of diagnostic classification between benign and malignant lung nodules in CT images, which aims to learn a direct mapping from 3D images to class labels. To achieve this goal, four two-pathway Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) are proposed, including a basic 3D CNN, a novel multi-output network, a 3D DenseNet, and an augmented 3D DenseNet with multi-outputs. These four networks are evaluated on the public LIDC-IDRI dataset and outperform most existing methods. In particular, the 3D multi-output DenseNet (MoDenseNet) achieves the state-of-the-art classification accuracy on the task of end-to-end lung nodule diagnosis. In addition, the networks pretrained on the LIDC-IDRI dataset can be further extended to handle smaller datasets using transfer learning. This is demonstrated on our dataset with encouraging prediction accuracy in lung nodule classification.
Characterization of lung nodules as benign or malignant is one of the most important tasks in lung cancer diagnosis, staging and treatment planning. While the variation in the appearance of the nodules remains large, there is a need for a fast and robust computer aided system. In this work, we propose an end-to-end trainable multi-view deep Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) for nodule characterization. First, we use median intensity projection to obtain a 2D patch corresponding to each dimension. The three images are then concatenated to form a tensor, where the images serve as different channels of the input image. In order to increase the number of training samples, we perform data augmentation by scaling, rotating and adding noise to the input image. The trained network is used to extract features from the input image followed by a Gaussian Process (GP) regression to obtain the malignancy score. We also empirically establish the significance of different high level nodule attributes such as calcification, sphericity and others for malignancy determination. These attributes are found to be complementary to the deep multi-view CNN features and a significant improvement over other methods is obtained.
Russian researchers from the Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (SPbPU) and radiologists from St. Petersburg Clinical Research for Specialized Types of Medical Care developed AI software that can distinguish and subsequently mark lung cancers on a CT scan within 20 seconds. The AI software, dubbed Doctor AI-zimov, can detect lung nodules as small as 2 millimeters on CT scans, according to a prepared statement issued by SPbPU. "Initially, we set up an algorithm to search for nodules starting from 6 millimeters, because radiologists themselves start the treatment of tumors of this size. But the system is so smart that it was able to find nodules of even smaller size," said lead researcher Lev Utkin, PhD, of the SPbPU Research Laboratory of Neural Network Technologies and Artificial Intelligence in St. Petersburg, Russia. Utkin and colleagues trained the software on 1,000 CT scans sourced from the Lung Image Database Consortium.
PITTSBURGH, March 12, 2019 - Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Screening is key for early detection and increased survival, but the current method has a 96 percent false positive rate. Using machine learning, researchers at the University of Pittsburgh and UPMC Hillman Cancer Center have found a way to substantially reduce false positives without missing a single case of cancer. The study was published today in the journal Thorax. This is the first time artificial intelligence has been applied to the question of sorting out benign from cancerous nodules in lung cancer screening.