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Pitch-Synchronous Single Frequency Filtering Spectrogram for Speech Emotion Recognition

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Akshay Deepak Department of Computer Science National Institute of Technology Patna, India Email: akshayd@nitp.ac.in Abstract --Convolutional neural networks (CNN) are widely used for speech emotion recognition (SER). In such cases, the short time fourier transform (STFT) spectrogram is the most popular choice for representing speech, which is fed as input to the CNN. However, the uncertainty principles of the short-time Fourier transform prevent it from capturing time and frequency resolutions simultaneously. On the other hand, the recently proposed single frequency filtering (SFF) spectrogram promises to be a better alternative because it captures both time and frequency resolutions simultaneously. In this work, we explore the SFF spectrogram as an alternative representation of speech for SER. We have modified the SFF spectrogram by taking the average of the amplitudes of all the samples between two successive glottal closure instants (GCI) locations. The duration between two successive GCI locations gives the pitch, motivating us to name the modified SFF spectrogram as pitch-synchronous SFF spectrogram. The GCI locations were detected using zero frequency filtering approach. The proposed pitch-synchronous SFF spectrogram produced accuracy values of 63.95% (unweighted) and 70.4% (weighted) on the IEMOCAP dataset. These correspond to an improvement of 7.35% (unweighted) and 4.3% (weighted) over state-of-the-art result on the STFT sepctrogram using CNN. Specially, the proposed method recognized 22.7% of the happy emotion samples correctly, whereas this number was 0% for state-of-the-art results. These results also promise a much wider use of the proposed pitch-synchronous SFF spectrogram for other speech-based applications. I NTRODUCTION S peech emotion recognition (SER) refers to the classification/recognition of the person's emotional state using the speech signal. SER has a lot of applications in real life.


Speech recognition using artificial neural networks and artificial bee colony optimization

#artificialintelligence

Over the past decade or so, advances in machine learning have paved the way for the development of increasingly advanced speech recognition tools. By analyzing audio files of human speech, these tools can learn to identify words and phrases in different languages, converting them into a machine-readable format. While several machine learning-based models have achieved promising results on speech recognition tasks, they do not always perform well in all languages. For instance, when a language has a vocabulary with many similar-sounding words, the performance of speech recognition systems can decline considerably. Researchers at Mahatma Gandhi Mission's College of Engineering & Technology and Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, in India, have developed a speech recognition system to tackle this problem.


Training Multi-Speaker Neural Text-to-Speech Systems using Speaker-Imbalanced Speech Corpora

arXiv.org Machine Learning

When the available data of a target speaker is insufficient to train a high quality speaker-dependent neural text-to-speech (TTS) system, we can combine data from multiple speakers and train a multi-speaker TTS model instead. Many studies have shown that neural multi-speaker TTS model trained with a small amount data from multiple speakers combined can generate synthetic speech with better quality and stability than a speaker-dependent one. However when the amount of data from each speaker is highly unbalanced, the best approach to make use of the excessive data remains unknown. Our experiments showed that simply combining all available data from every speaker to train a multi-speaker model produces better than or at least similar performance to its speaker-dependent counterpart. Moreover by using an ensemble multi-speaker model, in which each subsystem is trained on a subset of available data, we can further improve the quality of the synthetic speech especially for underrepresented speakers whose training data is limited.


Symbol Emergence in Cognitive Developmental Systems: a Survey

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Humans use signs, e.g., sentences in a spoken language, for communication and thought. Hence, symbol systems like language are crucial for our communication with other agents and adaptation to our real-world environment. The symbol systems we use in our human society adaptively and dynamically change over time. In the context of artificial intelligence (AI) and cognitive systems, the symbol grounding problem has been regarded as one of the central problems related to {\it symbols}. However, the symbol grounding problem was originally posed to connect symbolic AI and sensorimotor information and did not consider many interdisciplinary phenomena in human communication and dynamic symbol systems in our society, which semiotics considered. In this paper, we focus on the symbol emergence problem, addressing not only cognitive dynamics but also the dynamics of symbol systems in society, rather than the symbol grounding problem. We first introduce the notion of a symbol in semiotics from the humanities, to leave the very narrow idea of symbols in symbolic AI. Furthermore, over the years, it became more and more clear that symbol emergence has to be regarded as a multifaceted problem. Therefore, secondly, we review the history of the symbol emergence problem in different fields, including both biological and artificial systems, showing their mutual relations. We summarize the discussion and provide an integrative viewpoint and comprehensive overview of symbol emergence in cognitive systems. Additionally, we describe the challenges facing the creation of cognitive systems that can be part of symbol emergence systems.


Single-Channel Multi-Speaker Separation using Deep Clustering

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Deep clustering is a recently introduced deep learning architecture that uses discriminatively trained embeddings as the basis for clustering. It was recently applied to spectrogram segmentation, resulting in impressive results on speaker-independent multi-speaker separation. In this paper we extend the baseline system with an end-to-end signal approximation objective that greatly improves performance on a challenging speech separation. We first significantly improve upon the baseline system performance by incorporating better regularization, larger temporal context, and a deeper architecture, culminating in an overall improvement in signal to distortion ratio (SDR) of 10.3 dB compared to the baseline of 6.0 dB for two-speaker separation, as well as a 7.1 dB SDR improvement for three-speaker separation. We then extend the model to incorporate an enhancement layer to refine the signal estimates, and perform end-to-end training through both the clustering and enhancement stages to maximize signal fidelity. We evaluate the results using automatic speech recognition. The new signal approximation objective, combined with end-to-end training, produces unprecedented performance, reducing the word error rate (WER) from 89.1% down to 30.8%. This represents a major advancement towards solving the cocktail party problem.